The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the weight of scientific evidence regarding student outcomes (physical, cognitive and affective) of a Game Centered Approach (GCA) when the quality of a study was taken into account in the interpretation of collective findings. A systematic search of five electronic databases (Sports Discuss, ERIC, A+ Education, PsychInfo and PROQUEST Education) was conducted from their year of inception to 30 January 2014. Included studies were longitudinal or experimental/quasi-experimental studies involving children or adolescents that quantitatively assessed (using repeat measures and/or comparison with a control group) the effects upon student outcomes when an intervention involved the use of a GCA. The search identified 15 articles examining the effects of GCA on student outcomes that met the criteria for inclusion. The weight of evidence provided by the included studies identified an association between a GCA and the outcomes of declarative knowledge, support during game play and affective outcomes of perceived competence, interest/enjoyment and effort/importance. Development of technical skill, procedural knowledge and game play skills of decision making and skill execution are not supported by the level of evidence currently provided. Intervention volume appears to have a large effect on the development of game based decision making and skill execution, with a positive association between these outcomes and use of GCA interventions greater than eight hours in volume. More longitudinal and intervention research examining the use of a GCA and potential psychological, physiological and behavioral outcomes in children and adolescents is recommended.
Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney, and Cheri A. Levinson
admission by an approved treatment staff member. Outcome Measures Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 16.0 (EDE-Q; Fairburn, 2008 ) is a 28-item self-report questionnaire designed to assess ED behaviors and thoughts. The global score of the EDE-Q, calculated by summing subscale totals and dividing by
Thomas M. Newman, Giampietro L. Vairo, and William E. Buckley
, the purpose of this critically appraised topic (CAT) is to investigate the effects of ankle braces on functional performance measures in such individuals. The outcomes of this CAT will assist sport rehabilitation specialists with informed clinical decision making in managing young, healthy, and
Steven Salaga, Scott Tainsky, and Michael Mondello
$150 billion ( American Gaming Association, 2018a ). Sports wagering consumption and interest in league outcomes are commonly viewed as complements. The Nielsen Company projects National Football League (NFL) revenues to increase by $2.3 billion per year under a regulated and widely available legalized
Shelby Waldron, J.D. DeFreese, Brian Pietrosimone, Johna Register-Mihalik, and Nikki Barczak
Federation of Sports Medicine, World Health Organization, and American Academy of Pediatrics, have released cautionary position statements warning against maladaptive physical and psychological outcomes of sport specialization, such as injury and burnout ( DiFiori, Benjamin, Brenner, & Gregory, 2014
Margaret A. Finley, Laura Dipietro, Jill Ohlhoff, Jill Whitall, Hermano I. Krebs, and Christopher T. Bever
We are expanding the use of the MIT-MANUS robotics to persons with impairments due exclusively to orthopedic disorders, with no neurological deficits. To understand the reliability of repeated measurements of the robotic tasks and the potential for registering changes due to learning is critical. Purposes of this study were to assess the learning effect of repeated exposure to robotic evaluations and to demonstrate the ability to detect a change in protocol in outcome measurements. Ten healthy, unimpaired subjects (mean age = 54.1 ± 6.4 years) performed six repeated evaluations consisting of unconstrained reaching movements to targets and circle drawing (with and without a visual template) on the MIT-MANUS. Reaching outcomes were aiming error, mean and peak speed, movement smoothness and duration. Outcomes for circle drawing were axis ratio metric and shoulder–elbow joint angles correlation metric (was based on a two-link model of the human arm and calculated hand path during the motions). Repeated-measures ANOVA (p ≤ .05) determined if difference existed between the sessions. Intraclass correlations (R) were calculated. All variables were reliable, without learning across testing sessions. Intraclass correlation values were good to high (reaching, R ≥ .80; circle drawing, R ≥ .90). Robotic measurement ability to differentiate between similar but distinct tasks was demonstrated as measured by axis ratio metric (p < .001) and joint correlation metric (p = .001). Outcome measures of the MIT-MANUS proved to be reliable yet sensitive to change in healthy adults without motor learning over the course of repeated measurements.
Christopher Napier, Christopher L. MacLean, Jessica Maurer, Jack E. Taunton, and Michael A. Hunt
kinetic outcomes. In a clinical context, increased step length, heel to center of mass distance, hip flexion angle at initial contact, and shank angle are all believed to be measures of overstriding. Relating these measures and their contribution to kinetic outcomes associated with running-related injury
Andre Filipe Santos-Magalhaes and Karen Hambly
The assessment of physical activity and return to sport and exercise activities is an important component in the overall evaluation of outcome after autologous cartilage implantation (ACI).
To identify the patient-report instruments that are commonly used in the evaluation of physical activity and return to sport after ACI and provide a critical analysis of these instruments from a rehabilitative perspective.
A computerized search was performed in January 2013 and repeated in March 2013. Criteria for inclusion required that studies (1) be written in English and published between 1994 and 2013; (2) be clinical studies where knee ACI cartilage repair was the primary treatment, or comparison studies between ACI and other techniques or between different ACI generations; (3) report postoperative physical activity and sport participation outcomes results, and (4) have evidence level of I–III.
Twenty-six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Three physical activity scales were identified: the Tegner Activity Scale, Modified Baecke Questionnaire, and Activity Rating Scale. Five knee-specific instruments were identified: the Lysholm Knee Function Scale, International Knee Documentation Committee Score Subjective Form, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Modified Cincinnati Knee Score, and Stanmore-Bentley Functional Score.
Considerable heterogeneity exists in the reporting of physical activity and sports participation after ACI. Current instruments do not fulfill the rehabilitative needs in the evaluation of physical activity and sports participation. The validated instruments fail in the assessment of frequency, intensity, and duration of sports participation.
Brandy J. Mailer, Tamara C. Valovich McLeod, and R. Curtis Bay
Clinicians often rely on the self-report symptoms of patients in making clinical decisions; hence it is important that these scales be reliable.
To determine the test-retest reliability of healthy youth in completing a graded symptom scale (GSS), modified from the Head Injury Scale Self-Report Concussion Symptoms Scale (HIS).
Middle school classroom.
Patients or Other Participants:
126 middle school students.
A survey consisting of a demographic and life events questionnaire and a GSS asking about symptom severity and duration.
Main Outcomes Measures:
Score for each symptom on the severity and duration scale and a total symptom score (TSS) and the total number of symptoms endorsed (TSE) from the severity scale. Responses on a life events questionnaire were also recorded.
We found excellent reliability for TSS (ICC = .93) and TSE (ICC = .88) for the severity scale. We found moderate to excellent reliability on the individual symptoms of both the severity (ICC = .65-.89) and duration (ICC =.56-.96) scales.
Healthy youth can reliably self-report symptoms using a GSS. This patient-oriented outcome measure should be incorporated into more investigations in this age group.
Aïna Chalabaev, Mélanie Emile, Karine Corrion, Yannick Stephan, Corentin Clément-Guillotin,, Christian Pradier, and Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville
This article presents the development and validation of the Aging Stereotypes and Exercise Scale (ASES), which measures different dimensions of aging stereotypes in the exercise domain. Drawing on past research on older adults’ perceived barriers to exercise, these dimensions include stereotypes about positive and negative exercise outcomes for older adults and about older adults’ psychological barriers to exercise (i.e., lack of self-efficacy and motivation). Four studies involving 714 participants examined the factorial structure and invariance, temporal stability, and external validity of the scale. The results supported a 3-factor model that was invariant across age. Age differences in stereotype content appeared, with older adults holding more positive stereotypes than younger adults. Also as predicted, the more older adults endorsed negative stereotypes, the lower their physical self-worth, self-rated health, and subjective age. Last, responses to the ASES appeared to be stable over a 6-wk period.