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Chris Knoester and Theo Randolph

outdoor activities, and the implications of these interactions for health and father-child relationships. Although outdoor activities may not be physical activities per se, they are often contrasted with sedentary indoor activities such as watching television and playing video games ( Booker et al., 2015

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Zeynep S. Akinci, Xavier Delclòs-Alió, Guillem Vich, and Carme Miralles-Guasch

of staying at home in isolation ( Glass & Balfour, 2003 ) and probably in front of screens ( Sugiyama, Salmon, Dunstan, Bauman, & Owen, 2007 ; Veitch et al., 2016 ). Thus, outdoor activity, whether in active or sedentary forms, can help older adults to achieve a healthy later life. Beyond individual

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Kazuo Inoue, Teiji Shono, and Masatoshi Matsumoto

The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the absence of outdoor activities is associated with an increased risk of mortality among elderly people living at home. In January 1995, the authors enrolled 863 household residents, 65 years old and older, who were able to fully understand and complete a baseline interview unassisted. Participant demographics, functional capabilities, activities of daily living, and three dimensions of outdoor activities (initiative, transport, and frequency) were examined. Cohort mortality was assessed through December 1999. Of the 863 participants, 139 (16.1%) died within the study observation period. After adjusting for gender and age, three dimensions of functional impairment (vision, hearing, and speech), impairment in activities of daily living, and all three dimensions of outdoor activities were predictive of 5-year mortality. In multivariate analysis, these three dimensions remained as explanatory variables for mortality at 5 years. Assessment of outdoor-activity levels can help identify elderly individuals with greater mortality risk.

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Paolo Menaspà, Franco M. Impellizzeri, Eric C. Haakonssen, David T. Martin, and Chris R. Abbiss

Purpose:

To determine the consistency of commercially available devices used for measuring elevation gain in outdoor activities and sports.

Methods:

Two separate observational validation studies were conducted. Garmin (Forerunner 310XT, Edge 500, Edge 750, and Edge 800; with and without elevation correction) and SRM (Power Control 7) devices were used to measure total elevation gain (TEG) over a 15.7-km mountain climb performed on 6 separate occasions (6 devices; study 1) and during a 138-km cycling event (164 devices; study 2).

Results:

TEG was significantly different between the Garmin and SRM devices (P < .05). The between-devices variability in TEG was lower when measured with the SRM than with the Garmin devices (study 1: 0.2% and 1.5%, respectively). The use of the Garmin elevation-correction option resulted in a 5–10% increase in the TEG.

Conclusions:

While measurements of TEG were relatively consistent within each brand, the measurements differed between the SRM and Garmin devices by as much as 3%. Caution should be taken when comparing elevation-gain data recorded with different settings or with devices of different brands.

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Florian Herbolsheimer, Stephanie Mosler, Richard Peter, and the ActiFE Ulm Study Group

accelerometer recorded less than 24 hr a day. Average physical activity time was calculated as total walking duration divided by the number of valid days, and was expressed as minutes per day. Outdoor activity diary An outdoor activity diary supplemented accelerometer estimates in order to distinguish outdoor

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Gohei Kato, Tomoyuki Arai, Yasuhiro Morita, and Hiroaki Fujita

, Depledge, & Fleming, 2017 ). To promote outdoor activity among community-dwelling older adults, key elements include not only personal factors, such as age, sex, and physical functioning ( Fujita et al., 2004 ; Suzukawa, Shimada, Kobayashi, & Suzuki, 2010 ), but also built environmental factors ( Bird et

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Karen E. Hancock, Paul Downward, and Lauren B. Sherar

, outdoor activities were associated with higher levels of happiness and sense of purpose. The association between outdoor activities and happiness has been noted previously ( Cabrita et al., 2017 ; Finlay et al., 2015 ). However, the finding that outdoor activities were associated with greater momentary

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Mirko Brandes, Berit Steenbock, and Norman Wirsik

estimate the RMR by indirect calorimetry. The local ethics committee of the Bremen University approved the procedures of the study. Activities After estimating RMR, the children performed up to 9 indoor and outdoor activities, starting with the indoor activities. Of the 9 activities, 5 covering light- to

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Robin C. Puett, Dina Huang, Jessica Montresor-Lopez, Rashawn Ray, and Jennifer D. Roberts

participation. Physical Activity and Active Play Questions assessing the frequency (≤once/mo vs ≥2 times/mo) of equipment use for indoor and outdoor activities included use of active video games (AVG); bicycles; skating equipment (eg, skateboards, roller blades); and fixed play equipment (eg, jungle gym). The

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Meke Mukeshi, Bernard Gutin, William Anderson, Patricia Zybert, and Charles Basch

The validity of the Caltrac movement sensor for use with preschool children was assessed. Caltrac-derived values for energy expenditure were compared with those derived via laborious coding of direct observation that involved classification of the child’s videotaped activity every other 5 seconds for an hour in the day-care center or on the playground. Both Caltrac and direct observation values were expressed in kilocalories. The subjects were 20 children with a mean age of 35 months. The correlation coefficient for the total of indoor and outdoor activity was r= .62 (p<.01). The separate correlations for indoor and outdoor activity were r=.56 (p<.05) and r=.48 (p<.05), respectively. However, when the children’s weight, height, age, and sex were factored out of both the Caltrac and direct observation scores, the correlations fell to r= .25 (n.s.), r= .47 (p<.05), and r=.16 (n.s.) for the total, indoor, and outdoor activity, respectively. Thus the Caltrac seemed to record indoor activity (mainly walking) more accurately than it recorded the more varied playground movements, casting doubt on its value as a means of measuring physical activity in children 2-3 years of age.