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Ya-Chen Liu, Wen-Wen Yang, I-Yao Fang, Hope Li-Ling Pan, Wei-Han Chen and Chiang Liu

 al., 2012 ), controlling chronic diseases ( Chodzko-Zajko et al., 2009 ; Kritchevsky et al., 2017 ), and improving quality of life ( Vuillemin et al., 2005 ). Outdoor fitness equipment (OFE) has been installed at many public parks in several developed and developing areas, such as the United States, Europe

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Janet Lok Chun Lee and Rainbow Tin Hung Ho

equipment in parks have various names. They have been referred to as “Family Fitness Zones” ( Cohen, Marsh, Williamson, Golinelli, & McKenzie, 2012 ), “Open Gyms” ( Mora, 2012 ), “National Fitness Path” ( Lee, 2015 ), “Outdoor Gyms” ( Stride, Cranney, Scott, & Hua, 2017 ), “Outdoor Fitness Equipment” ( Chow

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Jennifer L. Copeland, Cheryl Currie, Ali Walker, Erin Mason, Taura N. Willoughby and Ashley Amson


Providing freely accessible exercise facilities may increase physical activity at a population level. An increasingly popular strategy is outdoor fitness equipment in urban parks. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of this intervention in smaller cities. This study examined fitness equipment use, perceived effectiveness, and ways to increase use in a city of 100,000 people in 2015.


Two parks with fitness equipment and 4 without were directly observed. Interviews with 139 adults in active parks or living nearby were also conducted.


Only 2.7% of adult park users used the fitness equipment over 100 hours of observation across 3 seasons. In contrast, 22.3% of adults interviewed reported monthly or more use of the equipment, highlighting the limitations of self-report methods. Adults interviewed perceived the equipment as potentially beneficial and suggested strategies to increase public use, including increased advertising, the introduction of programming to teach and encourage use, improved equipment quality, and improved maintenance of the equipment and surrounding area.


In a low density city, park fitness equipment may not be an effective public health practice without additional efforts to market, introduce programming, and maintain these sites.

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12 2020 28 6 822 827 10.1123/japa.2019-0315 japa.2019-0315 Training Program With Outdoor Fitness Equipment in Parks Offers No Substantial Benefits for Functional Fitness in Active Seniors: A Randomized Controlled Trial Ya-Chen Liu * Wen-Wen Yang * I-Yao Fang * Hope Li-Ling Pan * Wei

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Cecilia del Campo Vega, Veronica Tutte, Gustavo Bermudez and Diana C. Parra

, specifically in the aerobic training FZ more so than in the strength training FZ, which saw not only a greater number of men but also an increase in the number of women. This finding highlights the fact that gender should be considered when planning and designing the implementation of outdoor fitness equipment

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Anna K. Porter, Samantha Schilsky, Kelly R. Evenson, Roberta Florido, Priya Palta, Katelyn M. Holliday and Aaron R. Folsom

resources that enable individuals to be active in ways that best promote health, such as tennis courts, walking/running tracks, trails/greenways, and outdoor fitness equipment. Acknowledgments The authors thank the staff and participants of the ARIC study for their important contributions. A.K.P. was

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Rebecca E. Hasson

of the parks added outdoor fitness equipment and a new recreation center. A significant increase in park use and physical activity levels among park users was reported in response to these renovations. In addition, there were improvements in the perception of park safety. Notably, many park users