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Mirko Brandes, Berit Steenbock, and Norman Wirsik

.3 (2.0) kg/m 2 . Of the 42 children, 22 were boys. All children were able to speak and understand German. The measurements were conducted at the kindergarten using the available indoor and outdoor infrastructure. The children had to fast for at least 2 hours before measurement, but they were allowed to

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Kent Griffin

. Those who have little to no space, for example, apartment occupants, are asking about hiking and biking on local trails. As a physical educator and an outdoor educator, of course I encourage them to engage in these activities, as long as they follow the guidelines per their local, state, and federal

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Chris Knoester and Theo Randolph

outdoor activities, and the implications of these interactions for health and father-child relationships. Although outdoor activities may not be physical activities per se, they are often contrasted with sedentary indoor activities such as watching television and playing video games ( Booker et al., 2015

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Olayinka Akinrolie, Sandra C. Webber, Nancy M. Salbach, and Ruth Barclay

Recently, outdoor walking has been advocated particularly for older adults due to the numerous benefits associated with walking in a natural environment. Outdoor walking has been shown to improve health and mental and social well-being ( Duvall, 2011 ; Simonsick, Guralnik, Volpato, Balfour

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Nicole E. Nicksic, Meliha Salahuddin, Nancy F. Butte, and Deanna M. Hoelscher

weight control. 2 However, most children in the United States do not participate in enough PA. 3 Children spending time outdoors has been shown to increase their activity levels. 4 , 5 Unstructured outdoor activity can increase overall PA levels as well as cognitive functioning, social interaction, and

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Kate Hovey, Diana Niland, and John T. Foley

populations, one of the areas that is lacking is the self-efficacy of physical education teacher education (PETE) students to teach outdoor education (OE) skills and concepts. As self-efficacy, and more specifically teacher self-efficacy, is defined as a teacher’s perception of how well they can teach a

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Owen Jeffries, Mark Waldron, Stephen D. Patterson, and Brook Galna

-second sprints, 9 4-minute time trials, 10 and longer duration 40-km time trials despite a ∼6% reduction in performance time outdoors. 11 Relatively little is known about variation in power output in response to more immediate external demands of pacing during outdoor cycling such as short strategic

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Dominika Bhatia, Nancy M. Salbach, Olayinka Akinrolie, Kyla Alsbury-Nealy, Renato Barbosa dos Santos, Parvin Eftekhar, Hal Loewen, Erica Nekolaichuk, Chelsea Scheller, Rebecca Schorr, Stephanie Scodras, and Ruth Barclay

 al., 1998 ), loss of independence ( World Health Organization, 2002 ), social isolation and poor mental health ( Herbolsheimer et al., 2017 ), as well as reduced health-related quality of life ( Fujita et al., 2006 ; Sirois et al., 2013 ). Since nearly half of older adults report infrequent outdoor walking

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Richard Larouche, Emily F. Mire, Kevin Belanger, Tiago V. Barreira, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Estelle V. Lambert, Carol Maher, José Maia, Tim Olds, Vincent Onywera, Olga L. Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Mark S. Tremblay, and For the ISCOLE Research Group

time ( 3 , 11 ). For example, data from the United States show that although participation in organized sports has increased over time, engagement in active transportation and outdoor play has markedly decreased over the last 4 decades ( 3 ). Mounting evidence suggests that children who spend more time

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Kimberly A. Clevenger, Michael J. Wierenga, Cheryl A. Howe, and Karin A. Pfeiffer

 al., 2017 ). However, children and adolescents spend the majority of the school day indoors, where they participate in predominantly sedentary behavior ( Bailey et al., 2012 ; Tandon, Saelens, & Christakis, 2015 ), save for physical education. Outdoor time (i.e., recess) may be the only opportunity for