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Tracking Performance Changes With Running-Stride Variability When Athletes Are Functionally Overreached

Joel T. Fuller, Clint R. Bellenger, Dominic Thewlis, John Arnold, Rebecca L. Thomson, Margarita D. Tsiros, Eileen Y. Robertson, and Jonathan D. Buckley


Stride-to-stride fluctuations in running-stride interval display long-range correlations that break down in the presence of fatigue accumulated during an exhaustive run. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether long-range correlations in running-stride interval were reduced by fatigue accumulated during prolonged exposure to a high training load (functional overreaching) and were associated with decrements in performance caused by functional overreaching.


Ten trained male runners completed 7 d of light training (LT7), 14 d of heavy training (HT14) designed to induce a state of functional overreaching, and 10 d of light training (LT10) in a fixed order. Running-stride intervals and 5-km time-trial (5TT) performance were assessed after each training phase. The strength of long-range correlations in running-stride interval was assessed at 3 speeds (8, 10.5, and 13 km/h) using detrended fluctuation analysis.


Relative to performance post-LT7, time to complete the 5TT was increased after HT14 (+18 s; P < .05) and decreased after LT10 (–20 s; P = .03), but stride-interval long-range correlations remained unchanged at HT14 and LT10 (P > .50). Changes in stride-interval long-range correlations measured at a 10.5-km/h running speed were negatively associated with changes in 5TT performance (r –.46; P = .03).


Runners who were most affected by the prolonged exposure to high training load (as evidenced by greater reductions in 5TT performance) experienced the greatest reductions in stride-interval long-range correlations. Measurement of stride-interval long-range correlations may be useful for monitoring the effect of high training loads on athlete performance.

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Changes in Choice Reaction Time During and After 8 Days Exhaustive Cycling Are Not Related to Changes in Physical Performance

Twan ten Haaf, Selma van Staveren, Danilo Iannetta, Bart Roelands, Romain Meeusen, Maria F. Piacentini, Carl Foster, Leo Koenderman, Hein A.M. Daanen, and Jos J. de Koning

An imbalance between exercise load and recovery time results in maladaptation to physical training. This process is termed overtraining, which can lead to functional overreaching (FOR) or nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) or overtraining syndrome. 1 , 2 FOR is sometimes intentionally induced in

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Symptoms of Overtraining in Resistance Exercise: International Cross-Sectional Survey

Clementine Grandou, Lee Wallace, Aaron J. Coutts, Lee Bell, and Franco M. Impellizzeri

training in combination with inadequate recovery can result in a decline in performance with or without related physiological and/or psychological signs and symptoms. 4 Resulting maladaptive conditions may include functional overreaching (FOR), nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR), or the overtraining

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A Systematic Review on Markers of Functional Overreaching in Endurance Athletes

Annemiek J. Roete, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser, Ruby T.A. Otter, Inge K. Stoter, and Robert P. Lamberts

negative response. However, if fatigue accumulates and an athlete is not able to recover from a training stimulus, he or she can develop a state of functional overreaching, nonfunctional overreaching, or even a full-blown overtraining syndrome. 4 Although an athlete, in most cases, recovers from a training

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Exercise-Induced Salivary Hormone Responses to High-Intensity, Self-Paced Running

Diogo V. Leal, Lee Taylor, and John Hough

Effective physical performance adaptations require an appropriately prescribed and periodized training program. 1 When overreaching occurs, a reduced athletic capacity (transiently or otherwise) may be observed due to imbalanced overload and recovery periodization. 2 Appropriate recovery may

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Reproducibility of Acute Steroid Hormone Responses in Men to Short-Duration Running

Diogo V. Leal, Lee Taylor, and John Hough

Successful athletic training requires balanced overload and recovery, without which short-term performance decrements can occur (eg, overreaching) in as little as 7 days. 1 Importantly, while overreached athletes can experience performance decrements in the short term, sufficient recovery (days to

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Optimizing Heat Acclimation for Endurance Athletes: High- Versus Low-Intensity Training

Cyril Schmit, Rob Duffield, Christophe Hausswirth, Jeanick Brisswalter, and Yann Le Meur

. Conversely, training at high intensities in the heat is also likely to increase the internal training load and to augment the risk of functional overreaching (F-OR). As F-OR has been associated with altered cardiac function 10 and impaired perceptual responses to exercise, 11 these maladaptations are

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Can the Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test Reflect Overreaching in Professional Cyclists?

Lieselot Decroix, Robert P. Lamberts, and Romain Meeusen

fatigue, resulting in decreased performance. 2 In the case of functional overreaching (FO), decreased performance will be reversed after appropriate recovery time in which supercompensation can occur, and improved performance will follow. 2 However, in nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) and overtraining

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Impairment of Cycling Capacity in the Heat in Well-Trained Endurance Athletes After High-Intensity Short-Term Heat Acclimation

Thomas Reeve, Ralph Gordon, Paul B. Laursen, Jason K.W. Lee, and Christopher J. Tyler

 ∼38°C) may not have been sufficient for adaptation. 12 Schmit et al 10 prescribed 60 minutes of high-intensity HA based on the participant’s highest intensity training sessions and observed positive physiological adaptations to the heat but reported that they were offset by functional overreaching

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Sleep Efficiency and Overreaching in Swimmers

Sean P. Wall, Carl G. Mattacola, C. Buz Swanik, and Susan Levenstein


Overreaching can be beneficial, but there is a risk of overtraining.


To investigate the difference in sleep efficiency between overreached and nonover-reached swimmers.


Repeated-measures, between-subjects. Swimmers were determined to be overreaching if 2 or more of their consecutive weekly swim times increased by 5% or more from baseline.


9 competitive high school and university sprinter swimmers.


24-h wrist actigraph.

Main Outcome Measure:

Sleep efficiency as measured by the actigraph.


There was a significant difference in sleep efficiency on night 1 between the overreached and nonoverreached swimmers (P = .008), as well as in their times after averaging over all 5 trials and adjusting for baseline (P = .016). By the fourth swim trial, the overreached swimmers had significantly slower swim times than those of the nonoverreached swimmers (P = .001).


Sleep efficiency shows potential as an objective, noninvasive predictor and monitor of overreaching in swimmers.