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Joel T. Fuller, Clint R. Bellenger, Dominic Thewlis, John Arnold, Rebecca L. Thomson, Margarita D. Tsiros, Eileen Y. Robertson and Jonathan D. Buckley

Purpose:

Stride-to-stride fluctuations in running-stride interval display long-range correlations that break down in the presence of fatigue accumulated during an exhaustive run. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether long-range correlations in running-stride interval were reduced by fatigue accumulated during prolonged exposure to a high training load (functional overreaching) and were associated with decrements in performance caused by functional overreaching.

Methods:

Ten trained male runners completed 7 d of light training (LT7), 14 d of heavy training (HT14) designed to induce a state of functional overreaching, and 10 d of light training (LT10) in a fixed order. Running-stride intervals and 5-km time-trial (5TT) performance were assessed after each training phase. The strength of long-range correlations in running-stride interval was assessed at 3 speeds (8, 10.5, and 13 km/h) using detrended fluctuation analysis.

Results:

Relative to performance post-LT7, time to complete the 5TT was increased after HT14 (+18 s; P < .05) and decreased after LT10 (–20 s; P = .03), but stride-interval long-range correlations remained unchanged at HT14 and LT10 (P > .50). Changes in stride-interval long-range correlations measured at a 10.5-km/h running speed were negatively associated with changes in 5TT performance (r –.46; P = .03).

Conclusions:

Runners who were most affected by the prolonged exposure to high training load (as evidenced by greater reductions in 5TT performance) experienced the greatest reductions in stride-interval long-range correlations. Measurement of stride-interval long-range correlations may be useful for monitoring the effect of high training loads on athlete performance.

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Lieselot Decroix, Robert P. Lamberts and Romain Meeusen

fatigue, resulting in decreased performance. 2 In the case of functional overreaching (FO), decreased performance will be reversed after appropriate recovery time in which supercompensation can occur, and improved performance will follow. 2 However, in nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) and overtraining

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Twan ten Haaf, Selma van Staveren, Danilo Iannetta, Bart Roelands, Romain Meeusen, Maria F. Piacentini, Carl Foster, Leo Koenderman, Hein A.M. Daanen and Jos J. de Koning

An imbalance between exercise load and recovery time results in maladaptation to physical training. This process is termed overtraining, which can lead to functional overreaching (FOR) or nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) or overtraining syndrome. 1 , 2 FOR is sometimes intentionally induced in

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Sean P. Wall, Carl G. Mattacola, C. Buz Swanik and Susan Levenstein

Context:

Overreaching can be beneficial, but there is a risk of overtraining.

Objective:

To investigate the difference in sleep efficiency between overreached and nonover-reached swimmers.

Design:

Repeated-measures, between-subjects. Swimmers were determined to be overreaching if 2 or more of their consecutive weekly swim times increased by 5% or more from baseline.

Participants:

9 competitive high school and university sprinter swimmers.

Intervention:

24-h wrist actigraph.

Main Outcome Measure:

Sleep efficiency as measured by the actigraph.

Results:

There was a significant difference in sleep efficiency on night 1 between the overreached and nonoverreached swimmers (P = .008), as well as in their times after averaging over all 5 trials and adjusting for baseline (P = .016). By the fourth swim trial, the overreached swimmers had significantly slower swim times than those of the nonoverreached swimmers (P = .001).

Conclusions:

Sleep efficiency shows potential as an objective, noninvasive predictor and monitor of overreaching in swimmers.

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Diogo V. Leal, Lee Taylor and John Hough

Successful athletic training requires balanced overload and recovery, without which short-term performance decrements can occur (eg, overreaching) in as little as 7 days. 1 Importantly, while overreached athletes can experience performance decrements in the short term, sufficient recovery (days to

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Cyril Schmit, Rob Duffield, Christophe Hausswirth, Jeanick Brisswalter and Yann Le Meur

. Conversely, training at high intensities in the heat is also likely to increase the internal training load and to augment the risk of functional overreaching (F-OR). As F-OR has been associated with altered cardiac function 10 and impaired perceptual responses to exercise, 11 these maladaptations are

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Thomas Reeve, Ralph Gordon, Paul B. Laursen, Jason K.W. Lee and Christopher J. Tyler

 ∼38°C) may not have been sufficient for adaptation. 12 Schmit et al 10 prescribed 60 minutes of high-intensity HA based on the participant’s highest intensity training sessions and observed positive physiological adaptations to the heat but reported that they were offset by functional overreaching

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Daniel Birrer

severity of its symptoms and its impairment to quality of life, overtraining phenomena must be considered serious and career-threatening events. Using the story of an elite rower, I illustrate the advantages of diagnosing and treating nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) and overtraining syndrome (OTS) by

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Maria Francesca Piacentini and Romain Meeusen

Purpose:

This longitudinal case study evaluated the effectiveness of an online training-monitoring system to prevent nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR).

Methods:

A female master track and field athlete was followed by means of a daily online training diary (www.spartanova.com) and a weekly profile of mood state (POMS). The online diary consists of objective training data and subjective feelings reported on a 10-cm visual analog scale. Furthermore, parameters that quantify and summarize training and adaptation to training were calculated. The novelty consists in the inclusion of a specific measuring parameter tested to detect NFOR (OR score).

Results:

During track-season preparation, the athlete was facing some major personal changes, and extratraining stress factors increased. Despite the fact that training load (TL) did not increase, the or score showed a 222% and then a 997% increase compared with baseline. POMS showed a 167% increase in fatigue, a 38% decrease in vigor, a 32% increase in depression scores, and a total mood increase of 22%, with a 1-wk shift compared with the OR score. A 41% decrease in TL restored the OR score and POMS to baseline values within 10 d.

Conclusion:

The results demonstrate that immediate feedback obtained by “warning signals” to both athletes and coaches, based on individual baseline data, seems an optimal predictor of FOR/NFOR.

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Lieselot Decroix, Maria Francesca Piacentini, Gerard Rietjens and Romain Meeusen

Purpose:

High training loads combined with other stressors can lead to performance decrements. The time needed to recover determines the diagnosis of (non)-functional overreaching or the overtraining syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of an 8-day (intensified) training camp of professional female cyclists on physical and cognitive performance.

Methods:

Nine subjects performed a 30-min time trial (TT), cognitive test, and Profile of Mood States questionnaire before, during, and after a training camp (49% increased training volume). On data collection, cyclists were classified as “overreached” (OR) or “adapted” (A) based on TT performance. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to detect changes in physical and cognitive parameters.

Results:

Five cyclists were described as OR based on decreased mean power output (MPO) (–7.03%) on day 8. Four cyclists were classified as A (increased MPO: +1.72%). MPO and maximal heart rate were significantly different between A and OR groups. A significant slower reaction time (RT) (+3.35%) was found in OR subjects, whereas RT decreased (–4.59%) in A subjects. The change in MPO was negatively correlated with change in RT in the cognitive test (R 2 = .52).

Conclusions:

This study showed that the use of objective, inexpensive, and easy-to-interpret physical and cognitive tests can facilitate the monitoring of training adaptations in professional female athletes.