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Sexism in Professional Sports: How Women Managers Experience and Survive Sport Organizational Culture

Lauren C. Hindman and Nefertiti A. Walker

theme in sport management literature is a nonlevel playing field, with women needing to prove their credibility and work harder for equal recognition ( Aitchison, 2005 ; Burton et al., 2012 ). While overt sexism is common in sport, women working in the industry encounter both overt and subtle sexism

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Negotiating Gender in the English Football Workplace: Composite Vignettes of Women Head Coaches’ Experiences

Beth G. Clarkson, Elwyn Cox, and Richard C. Thelwell

must consider how their own positions in the world influence the way in which they perceive it ( Temple & Young, 2004 ). The lead author identifies as a White woman and as a Level 3 qualified football coach with 12 years’ coaching experience. The lead author had not experienced overt sexism in her

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Stigma Consciousness and Work Outcomes of Senior Woman Administrators: The Role of Workplace Incivility

Janelle E. Wells, Melanie Sartore-Baldwin, Nefertiti A. Walker, and Cheryl E. Gray

socially unacceptable, covert forms of gender discrimination, such as workplace incivility, may be quite common, particularly in sport. Cortina ( 2008 ) proposed that workplace incivility directed toward women is a form of covert discrimination and has taken the place of overt sexism. Andersson and Pearson

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Female Sports Officials and Mental Health: The Overlooked Problem

Jacob K. Tingle, Brittany L. Jacobs, Lynn L. Ridinger, and Stacy Warner

at association meetings the environment preserved is that of a locker room, which Jacinta described as meaning that crude humor and overt sexism are accepted or promoted. Eighteen participants further indicated that being questioned simply because they were a woman in a male-dominated environment

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Becoming Fans: Socialization and Motivations of Fans of the England and U.S. Women’s National Football Teams

Rachel Allison and Stacey Pope

study of fandom in women’s sport is significant to understanding both the state of gender inequality in elite sport and challenges to it ( Dixon, 2015 ). What football cultures in England and the United States have in common is a history and legacy of overt sexism and gender discrimination, as well as

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Virtually Masculine: Queer Men’s Experiences With Harassment in Online Video Games

Jeremy Brenner-Levoy

reluctant to share offline. There are social repercussions to overt sexism and homophobia offline, but anonymity could create an atmosphere that empowers people to share these views due to reduced accountability. These three unique conditions of the internet modify the way that people interact in online

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Separate and Unequal? Representations of Sportswomen on espnW’s and ESPN’s Instagram

Kelly Fraidenburg and Laura Backstrom

coverage of sportswomen. They argue that bland coverage of sportswomen normalizes the gender hierarchy in sports while allowing members of the sports media to avoid charges of overt sexism. Further, sportswomen’s personal lives may be featured in ways that detract from being taken seriously as an athlete

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Mothers as Others in Collegiate Athletic Departments: The Impact of a Gendered Organization on Women Coaches

Jessica Siegele, Elizabeth Taylor, Kelsie Saxe, and Allison Smith

level of the socioecological model that particularly affect women in sport organizations, such as hegemonic masculinity, male privilege, and hostile working environments ( Hindman & Walker, 2020 ; LaVoi, 2016 ), racism, homophobia, discrimination, subtle and overt sexism ( Hardin et al., 2022 ; Kenttä

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“You Should be Flattered!”: Female Sport Management Faculty Experiences of Sexual Harassment and Sexism

Elizabeth A. Taylor, Allison B. Smith, Natalie M. Welch, and Robin Hardin

, judgment of behavior, or the belief that women are unfit to perform certain tasks based on being a woman ( Swim & Cohen, 1997 ). However, sexism is a multi-faceted construct that includes two common forms: hostile and benevolent sexism. Hostile or overt sexism occurs when women are treated unequal and