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Heidi L. Meehan, Stephen J. Bull, Dan M. Wood and David V.B. James

The present study explored the experiences of five competitive endurance athletes (1 female, 4 male) diagnosed with the overtraining syndrome (OTS). A multicontextual method of inquiry was used, which first involved a medical examination whereby OTS was diagnosed according to established criteria. In addition, 2 questionnaires were administered: the Athlete Daily Hassle Scale (Albinson & Pearce, 1998) and the Coping Response Inventory (Moos, 1992), and a semistructured interview was conducted. Individual case studies were then developed and cross-case analysis carried out. Findings from the present study illustrate that together with sport stress, nonsport stress appears to make an important contribution to the experience of those athletes diagnosed with the OTS. This finding provides evidence to support anecdotes in previous reports.

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Daniel Birrer

the pain and pushing your body hard. That kind of sport culture encourages overtraining” ( Richardson, Andersen, & Morris, 2008 , p. 159). The reported prevalence of overtraining varies widely, ranging from 5% to 60% ( Birrer, Lienhard, Williams, Röthlin, & Morgan, 2013 ; Kreher, 2016 ). Given the

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Nils Haller, Tobias Ehlert, Sebastian Schmidt, David Ochmann, Björn Sterzing, Franz Grus and Perikles Simon

and consequently, to maintain game performance because a lack of sufficient recovery may result in decreased performance, overtraining, illness, or injury. 4 A variety of options for player monitoring leads to a disagreement about the ideal approach. 4 Questionnaires or the assessment of load

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Judy D. Goss

The personality construct of hardiness has been introduced as a moderator in the stress-illness relationship. Hardy individuals are thought to alter their appraisal of stress into a less stressful form. Mood disturbances have been found to be a product of intensive physical training. This investigation examines the relationships between hardiness and mood disturbances in swimmers who are overtraining and between hardiness, mood disturbances, and coping behaviors. Swimmers (N=253) from eight universities and seven competitive club programs completed the Cognitive Hardiness Inventory, the Profile of Mood States, the Everly Coping Scale, and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale at the beginning of their competitive season, and at two 7-week intervals. Hardy swimmers experienced fewer mood disturbances during the season than nonhardy swimmers. Specifically, hardy swimmers had lower feelings of tension, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion, and higher feelings of vigor. Hardy swimmers also possessed more adaptive coping behaviors.

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Andrew C. Fry, William J. Kraemer, James M. Lynch and Jason M. Barnes

Objective:

To report a joint-centered mechanism of performance decrements caused by overtraining.

Design:

Case study.

Setting:

Laboratory-induced overtraining.

Participants:

Eleven weight-trained men, 1 (subject A) with overload injury of the knees.

Intervention:

High-intensity squat resistance-exercise overtraining for 2 weeks.

Outcome Measures:

1RM lower-body strength, isokinetic and isometric knee-extension strength, and stimulated isometric knee-extension strength.

Results:

Subject A’s 1RM strength decreased 40.3 kg, and the other overtrained subjects (OT) exhibited significant (P < .05) 1RM decrements (x = –9.3 kg). Isokinetic knee-extension strength decreased for all subjects. For the OT group, voluntary isometric knee-extension strength did not change and stimulated isometric knee-extension strength decreased. Subject A exhibited increased values for both these variables.

Discussion:

These data indicate that muscle strength was attenuated for subject A only during dynamic activity. It is theorized that subject A exhibited a joint-centered overtraining syndrome, with afferent inhibition from the affected joints impairing dynamic strength.

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Bonnie G. Berger, Robert W. Motl, Brian D. Butki, David T. Martin, John G. Wilkinson and David R. Owen

This study examined changes in mood and performance in response to high-intensity, short-duration overtraining and a subsequent taper. Pursuit cyclists (N = 8) at the United States Olympic Training Center completed the POMS and simulated 4-km pursuit performance tests throughout a six-week period. The six-week period included a baseline week, three weeks of overtraining that consisted primarily of high-intensity interval training, and a two-week taper. Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) scores displayed a quadratic polynomial effect across the three weeks of overtraining (p < .01), with the highest TMD scores occurring in the second week. Average TMD scores were lower during the taper than at baseline (p < .02) and lower at taper than overtraining (p < .0005). Cycling performance (pursuit time and average power output) improved during the three weeks of overtraining; additional improvements were observed during the taper. There were no significant correlations between TMD and performance. However, pursuit time, average power output, and mood disturbance scores were at optimal levels throughout the taper period. These findings suggest that high-intensity, short-duration overtraining may not result in an overtraining syndrome in 4-km pursuit cyclists.

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Adam R. Nicholls, Jim McKenna, Remco C.J. Polman and Susan H. Backhouse

The aim of this study was to explore the perceived factors that contribute to stress and negative affective states during preseason among a sample of professional rugby union players. The participants were 12 male professional rugby union players between 18 and 21 years of age (M age = 19 years, SD = 0.85). Data were collected via semistructured interviews and analyzed using an inductive content analysis procedure. Players identified training (structure and volume), the number of matches played and the recovery period, diet, sleep, and travel as factors that they believed contributed to their experience of stress and negative affective states. The present findings suggest that players may require more time to recover between matches, alongside interventions to help players manage the symptoms of stress and negative affect during times in which players are overtraining.

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Jingmei Dong, Peijie Chen, Qing Liu, Ru Wang, Weihua Xiao and Yajun Zhang

Purpose:

To examine the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and the combined effect of glutamine supplementation and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) on the function of neutrophils induced by overtraining.

Methods:

Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group (C), overtraining group (E), DPI-administration group (D), glutamine-supplementation group (G), and combined DPI and glutamine group (DG). Blood was sampled from the orbital vein after rats were trained on treadmill for 11 wk. Cytokine and lipid peroxidation in blood plasma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The colocalization between gp91phox and p47phox of the NADPH oxidase was detected using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. The activity of NADPH oxidase was assessed by chemiluminescence. Neutrophils’ respiratory burst and phagocytosis function were measured by flow cytometry.

Results:

NADPH oxidase was activated by overtraining. Cytokine and lipid peroxidation in blood plasma and the activity of NADPH oxidase were markedly increased in Group E compared with Group C. Neutrophil function was lower in Group E than Group C. Both lower neutrophils function and higher ROS production were reversed in Group DG. The glutamine and DPI interference alone in Group D and Group G was less effective than DPI and glutamine combined in group DG.

Conclusion:

Activation of NADPH oxidase is responsible for the production of superoxide anions, which leads to excessive ROS and is related to the decrease in neutrophil function induced by overtraining. The combined DPI administration and glutamine supplementation reversed the decreased neutrophil function after overtraining.

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Sean P. Wall, Carl G. Mattacola, C. Buz Swanik and Susan Levenstein

Context:

Overreaching can be beneficial, but there is a risk of overtraining.

Objective:

To investigate the difference in sleep efficiency between overreached and nonover-reached swimmers.

Design:

Repeated-measures, between-subjects. Swimmers were determined to be overreaching if 2 or more of their consecutive weekly swim times increased by 5% or more from baseline.

Participants:

9 competitive high school and university sprinter swimmers.

Intervention:

24-h wrist actigraph.

Main Outcome Measure:

Sleep efficiency as measured by the actigraph.

Results:

There was a significant difference in sleep efficiency on night 1 between the overreached and nonoverreached swimmers (P = .008), as well as in their times after averaging over all 5 trials and adjusting for baseline (P = .016). By the fourth swim trial, the overreached swimmers had significantly slower swim times than those of the nonoverreached swimmers (P = .001).

Conclusions:

Sleep efficiency shows potential as an objective, noninvasive predictor and monitor of overreaching in swimmers.

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Ryan C. Luke, Joanna L. Morrissey, Erin J. Reinke, Trish G. Sevene, Judith E. Canner and Kent J. Adams

Many athletes deal with the dilemma of a short pre-season followed by a long and grueling competitive season. Unfortunately, this type of schedule puts athletes at greater risk of injury and/or development of overtraining syndrome. In order for athletes to realize optimal performance, it is vital that a coaching staff engages in and understands the rationale (physiological and psychological) behind best coaching practices to ensure that athletes are mentally and physically prepared for competition. This requires managing athletes’ mental and physical fatigue over the duration of a competitive season, which involves applying effective coaching strategies during the off-season and pre-season. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of coaching methods the Kinesiology Department faculty and the coaching staff of the women’s soccer team at California State University Monterey Bay collaborated to measure athlete preparedness for competition on a weekly basis over the duration of a competitive season. The following article is a discussion of coaching methods that are considered an example of best practice and the physiological and psychological rationale behind what we would consider to be effective strategies for managing athletes’ mental and physical fatigue and thereby increasing the chances for an athlete to realize optimal performance.