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Clementine Grandou, Lee Wallace, Aaron J. Coutts, Lee Bell and Franco M. Impellizzeri

training in combination with inadequate recovery can result in a decline in performance with or without related physiological and/or psychological signs and symptoms. 4 Resulting maladaptive conditions may include functional overreaching (FOR), nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR), or the overtraining

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Heidi L. Meehan, Stephen J. Bull, Dan M. Wood and David V.B. James

The present study explored the experiences of five competitive endurance athletes (1 female, 4 male) diagnosed with the overtraining syndrome (OTS). A multicontextual method of inquiry was used, which first involved a medical examination whereby OTS was diagnosed according to established criteria. In addition, 2 questionnaires were administered: the Athlete Daily Hassle Scale (Albinson & Pearce, 1998) and the Coping Response Inventory (Moos, 1992), and a semistructured interview was conducted. Individual case studies were then developed and cross-case analysis carried out. Findings from the present study illustrate that together with sport stress, nonsport stress appears to make an important contribution to the experience of those athletes diagnosed with the OTS. This finding provides evidence to support anecdotes in previous reports.

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Daniel Birrer

the pain and pushing your body hard. That kind of sport culture encourages overtraining” ( Richardson, Andersen, & Morris, 2008 , p. 159). The reported prevalence of overtraining varies widely, ranging from 5% to 60% ( Birrer, Lienhard, Williams, Röthlin, & Morgan, 2013 ; Kreher, 2016 ). Given the

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Guro Strøm Solli, Espen Tønnessen and Øyvind Sandbakk

overreaching or overtraining syndrome, defined as a prolonged maladaptation leading to a decrease in the ability to perform at established levels for a prolonged period. 8 – 12 The overtraining condition is associated with a range of symptoms, such as increased perception of effort during exercise, frequent

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Nils Haller, Tobias Ehlert, Sebastian Schmidt, David Ochmann, Björn Sterzing, Franz Grus and Perikles Simon

and consequently, to maintain game performance because a lack of sufficient recovery may result in decreased performance, overtraining, illness, or injury. 4 A variety of options for player monitoring leads to a disagreement about the ideal approach. 4 Questionnaires or the assessment of load

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Judy D. Goss

The personality construct of hardiness has been introduced as a moderator in the stress-illness relationship. Hardy individuals are thought to alter their appraisal of stress into a less stressful form. Mood disturbances have been found to be a product of intensive physical training. This investigation examines the relationships between hardiness and mood disturbances in swimmers who are overtraining and between hardiness, mood disturbances, and coping behaviors. Swimmers (N=253) from eight universities and seven competitive club programs completed the Cognitive Hardiness Inventory, the Profile of Mood States, the Everly Coping Scale, and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale at the beginning of their competitive season, and at two 7-week intervals. Hardy swimmers experienced fewer mood disturbances during the season than nonhardy swimmers. Specifically, hardy swimmers had lower feelings of tension, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion, and higher feelings of vigor. Hardy swimmers also possessed more adaptive coping behaviors.

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Jinger S. Gottschall, Joshua J. Davis, Bryce Hastings and Heather J. Porter

the neuroendocrine system demonstrates signs of overload due to the extreme demand of physical training without appropriate recovery. 10 It is a pathophysiologic state on the spectrum of overtraining where the training stimulus it too great or recovery is not adequate. Previous literature has

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Andrew C. Fry, William J. Kraemer, James M. Lynch and Jason M. Barnes

Objective:

To report a joint-centered mechanism of performance decrements caused by overtraining.

Design:

Case study.

Setting:

Laboratory-induced overtraining.

Participants:

Eleven weight-trained men, 1 (subject A) with overload injury of the knees.

Intervention:

High-intensity squat resistance-exercise overtraining for 2 weeks.

Outcome Measures:

1RM lower-body strength, isokinetic and isometric knee-extension strength, and stimulated isometric knee-extension strength.

Results:

Subject A’s 1RM strength decreased 40.3 kg, and the other overtrained subjects (OT) exhibited significant (P < .05) 1RM decrements (x = –9.3 kg). Isokinetic knee-extension strength decreased for all subjects. For the OT group, voluntary isometric knee-extension strength did not change and stimulated isometric knee-extension strength decreased. Subject A exhibited increased values for both these variables.

Discussion:

These data indicate that muscle strength was attenuated for subject A only during dynamic activity. It is theorized that subject A exhibited a joint-centered overtraining syndrome, with afferent inhibition from the affected joints impairing dynamic strength.

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Bonnie G. Berger, Robert W. Motl, Brian D. Butki, David T. Martin, John G. Wilkinson and David R. Owen

This study examined changes in mood and performance in response to high-intensity, short-duration overtraining and a subsequent taper. Pursuit cyclists (N = 8) at the United States Olympic Training Center completed the POMS and simulated 4-km pursuit performance tests throughout a six-week period. The six-week period included a baseline week, three weeks of overtraining that consisted primarily of high-intensity interval training, and a two-week taper. Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) scores displayed a quadratic polynomial effect across the three weeks of overtraining (p < .01), with the highest TMD scores occurring in the second week. Average TMD scores were lower during the taper than at baseline (p < .02) and lower at taper than overtraining (p < .0005). Cycling performance (pursuit time and average power output) improved during the three weeks of overtraining; additional improvements were observed during the taper. There were no significant correlations between TMD and performance. However, pursuit time, average power output, and mood disturbance scores were at optimal levels throughout the taper period. These findings suggest that high-intensity, short-duration overtraining may not result in an overtraining syndrome in 4-km pursuit cyclists.

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Adam R. Nicholls, Jim McKenna, Remco C.J. Polman and Susan H. Backhouse

The aim of this study was to explore the perceived factors that contribute to stress and negative affective states during preseason among a sample of professional rugby union players. The participants were 12 male professional rugby union players between 18 and 21 years of age (M age = 19 years, SD = 0.85). Data were collected via semistructured interviews and analyzed using an inductive content analysis procedure. Players identified training (structure and volume), the number of matches played and the recovery period, diet, sleep, and travel as factors that they believed contributed to their experience of stress and negative affective states. The present findings suggest that players may require more time to recover between matches, alongside interventions to help players manage the symptoms of stress and negative affect during times in which players are overtraining.