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Symptoms of Overtraining in Resistance Exercise: International Cross-Sectional Survey

Clementine Grandou, Lee Wallace, Aaron J. Coutts, Lee Bell, and Franco M. Impellizzeri

training in combination with inadequate recovery can result in a decline in performance with or without related physiological and/or psychological signs and symptoms. 4 Resulting maladaptive conditions may include functional overreaching (FOR), nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR), or the overtraining

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Effects of Overtraining Status on the Cortisol Awakening Response—Endocrine and Metabolic Responses on Overtraining Syndrome (EROS-CAR)

Travis Anderson, Laurie Wideman, Flavio A. Cadegiani, and Claudio E. Kater

extend this supposition, it is theoretically reasonable to conceptualize an inverted “U” type response of the CAR across the training/overtraining continuum; however, what constitutes a normal or healthy value at each point on this continuum, for any specific athlete or training program, is certainly

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The Multidisciplinary Process Leading to Return From Underperformance and Sustainable Success in the World’s Best Cross-Country Skier

Guro Strøm Solli, Espen Tønnessen, and Øyvind Sandbakk

overreaching or overtraining syndrome, defined as a prolonged maladaptation leading to a decrease in the ability to perform at established levels for a prolonged period. 8 – 12 The overtraining condition is associated with a range of symptoms, such as increased perception of effort during exercise, frequent

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Circulating, Cell-Free DNA for Monitoring Player Load in Professional Football

Nils Haller, Tobias Ehlert, Sebastian Schmidt, David Ochmann, Björn Sterzing, Franz Grus, and Perikles Simon

and consequently, to maintain game performance because a lack of sufficient recovery may result in decreased performance, overtraining, illness, or injury. 4 A variety of options for player monitoring leads to a disagreement about the ideal approach. 4 Questionnaires or the assessment of load

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Overtraining Syndrome Symptoms and Diagnosis in Athletes: Where Is the Research? A Systematic Review

Jonathon Weakley, Shona L. Halson, and Iñigo Mujika

Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is a condition associated with a long-term imbalance between training and recovery. 1 First reported in the scientific literature in the 1930s, 2 it is characterized by performance decrements, fatigue, and mood disturbances and has been proposed to affect between 20

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Novel Markers of Recovery From Overtraining Syndrome: The EROS-LONGITUDINAL Study

Flavio A. Cadegiani, Pedro Henrique L. Silva, Tatiana C.P. Abrao, and Claudio E. Kater

Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is a sport-derived disease that results in an unexplained decrease in sport performance and is experienced by the majority of elite athletes at least once in their lifetime. 1 – 4 It is differentiated from other impaired states in sport by the prolonged time course to

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Exercise Time and Intensity: How Much Is Too Much?

Jinger S. Gottschall, Joshua J. Davis, Bryce Hastings, and Heather J. Porter

the neuroendocrine system demonstrates signs of overload due to the extreme demand of physical training without appropriate recovery. 10 It is a pathophysiologic state on the spectrum of overtraining where the training stimulus it too great or recovery is not adequate. Previous literature has

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Rowing Over the Edge: Nonfunctional Overreaching and Overtraining Syndrome as Maladjustment—Diagnosis and Treatment From a Psychological Perspective

Daniel Birrer

the pain and pushing your body hard. That kind of sport culture encourages overtraining” ( Richardson, Andersen, & Morris, 2008 , p. 159). The reported prevalence of overtraining varies widely, ranging from 5% to 60% ( Birrer, Lienhard, Williams, Röthlin, & Morgan, 2013 ; Kreher, 2016 ). Given the

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The Overtraining Syndrome: A Multicontextual Assessment

Heidi L. Meehan, Stephen J. Bull, Dan M. Wood, and David V.B. James

The present study explored the experiences of five competitive endurance athletes (1 female, 4 male) diagnosed with the overtraining syndrome (OTS). A multicontextual method of inquiry was used, which first involved a medical examination whereby OTS was diagnosed according to established criteria. In addition, 2 questionnaires were administered: the Athlete Daily Hassle Scale (Albinson & Pearce, 1998) and the Coping Response Inventory (Moos, 1992), and a semistructured interview was conducted. Individual case studies were then developed and cross-case analysis carried out. Findings from the present study illustrate that together with sport stress, nonsport stress appears to make an important contribution to the experience of those athletes diagnosed with the OTS. This finding provides evidence to support anecdotes in previous reports.

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Sleep Efficiency and Overreaching in Swimmers

Sean P. Wall, Carl G. Mattacola, C. Buz Swanik, and Susan Levenstein


Overreaching can be beneficial, but there is a risk of overtraining.


To investigate the difference in sleep efficiency between overreached and nonover-reached swimmers.


Repeated-measures, between-subjects. Swimmers were determined to be overreaching if 2 or more of their consecutive weekly swim times increased by 5% or more from baseline.


9 competitive high school and university sprinter swimmers.


24-h wrist actigraph.

Main Outcome Measure:

Sleep efficiency as measured by the actigraph.


There was a significant difference in sleep efficiency on night 1 between the overreached and nonoverreached swimmers (P = .008), as well as in their times after averaging over all 5 trials and adjusting for baseline (P = .016). By the fourth swim trial, the overreached swimmers had significantly slower swim times than those of the nonoverreached swimmers (P = .001).


Sleep efficiency shows potential as an objective, noninvasive predictor and monitor of overreaching in swimmers.