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Josh Trout and Kim C. Graber

The purpose of this investigation was to examine overweight students’ perceptions of and experiences in physical education. Specifically, the applicability of learned helplessness as a framework to understand their experiences was explored. Participants were seven female and five male high school students whose body mass index was at or higher than the gender- and age-specific 85th percentile based on Centers for Disease Control growth charts. Data collection included formal interviews with students and their parents. The primary findings indicate that students have mixed opinions concerning the benefits to be derived from physical education. Despite recognizing the relationship between lack of physical activity and obesity, many participants avoided participation because they had been traumatized to the extent of exhibiting symptoms consistent with learned helplessness. Participants demonstrated greater concern about visibility than they did about their performance, which suggests they might engage in physical activity if shielded from the view of peers.

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Danielle Symons Downs, Krista S. Leonard, Jessica S. Beiler and Ian M. Paul

others in the year after delivery. 13 Women who were active before pregnancy also fail to return to their prepregnancy EX levels after pregnancy. 11 Given that the majority of women enter pregnancy already overweight (25%) or obese (30%) and gain weight during pregnancy in excess of Institute of

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Jeffrey C. Cowley, Steven T. McCaw, Kelly R. Laurson and Michael R. Torry

Conditions associated with inactivity, including overweight and obesity, are increasingly common in children ( 33 ). Overweight contributes to many negative health outcomes during childhood, and children who are overweight are more likely to be overweight as adults ( 8 , 38 ). Research consistently

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Mostafa Yaghoubi, Philip W. Fink, Wyatt H. Page and Sarah P. Shultz

The incidence of pediatric overweight (OW) has increased rapidly in recent decades, with an estimated 200 million children (school aged) worldwide categorized as OW or obese and a further 92 million children at risk of becoming OW ( 39 , 49 ). Physical activity is a key component in the prevention

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Neil Armstrong and Jo Welsman

girls’ values progressively decline with age, particularly from ∼13 to 14 years of age ( 6 ). Ratio scaling is “convenient and traditional” ( 13 ), but it does not have a rigorous scientific rationale, is often not statistically justified, favors lighter individuals, and penalizes heavier (overweight or

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Matthew R. Nagy, Molly P. O’Sullivan, Shannon S. Block, Trevor R. Tooley, Leah E. Robinson, Natalie Colabianchi and Rebecca E. Hasson

Despite the known benefits of physical activity, less than 50% of children in the United States meet the national physical activity recommendations of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. 1 Overweight/obese (OW/OB) children fare even worse with only 20%–40% meeting the

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Lisa Chu and Brian W. Timmons

Nutritional considerations for the overweight young athlete have not been thoroughly discussed in the scientific literature. With the high prevalence of childhood obesity, more children participating in sports are overweight or obese. This is particularly true for select sports, such as American football, where large size provides an added advantage. While sport participation should be encouraged because of the many benefits of physical activity, appropriate nutritional practices are vital for growth, and optimizing performance and health. The overweight young athlete may face certain challenges because of variable energy costs and nutrient requirements for growth and routine training, compared with nonoverweight athletes. Special attention should be given to adopting healthy lifestyle choices to prevent adverse health effects due to increased adiposity. In this review, we aim to discuss special nutritional considerations and highlight gaps in the literature concerning nutrition for overweight young athletes compared with their nonoverweight peers.

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Mostafa Yaghoubi, Philip W. Fink, Wyatt H. Page, Ali Heydari and Sarah P. Shultz

-bearing environment and may not be practical for overweight (OW) children. Previous studies have found that the excess mass carried by children who are OW or obese required increased ground reaction forces ( 22 ), joint moments ( 39 ), and muscle activation (using electromyography) ( 12 ), as well as less efficiency

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Pasmore Malambo, Andre P. Kengne, Estelle V. Lambert, Anniza De Villiers and Thandi Puoane

Overweight and obesity are a worldwide health problem, affecting populations across a diversity of social and income statuses. In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that more than 1.9 billion adults were overweight and 600 million were obese. 1 Theoretically, walking could help

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Liina Remmel, Vallo Tillmann, Eva Mengel, Pille Kool, Priit Purge, Evelin Lätt and Jaak Jürimäe

different inflammatory markers in overweight adolescents grouped by their everyday PA level into those with less or more than 60 minutes of MVPA per day. CRP, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are more extensively studied inflammatory markers in overweight children and adolescents ( 1 , 31