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The Changing Organizational Structure of Football Clubs and Their Relationship With the External Media

Jamie A. Cleland

The development of “new” media and the financial investment in football since the early 1990s have dramatically changed the football club–media relationship. A number of clubs changed ownership and organizational structure for financial gain or financial survival while the increasing demand for immediate information led to clubs’ recognizing the importance of external communication. Drawing on 47 semistructured interviews with media personnel and 827 questionnaires completed by supporters at 4 football clubs, this article assesses the organizational structure of clubs in dealing with the media and supporters and the level of dependence between clubs and the external media. The results highlight changes in the organizational structure of clubs and their strategies for external communication, as well as the contrasting relationships between football clubs and the external media. As ownership and personnel changes occur, clubs should remember the importance of the 2-way relationships they are in with supporters and the media.

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Ownership in European Soccer, Financial Fair Play, and Performance in UEFA’s 2006–2018 Champions League Tournaments

Gidon Jakar and Stephanie Gerretsen

European soccer is composed of different leagues and a variety of governance structures and club ownership models. The extent of national and local government intervention and involvement in the sport varies between the league and clubs participating in European tournaments. The European leagues

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Owner–Resident Ideological Divergence and Firm Performance: Evidence From Major League Baseball

Ted Hayduk III

minimization. There is no doubt that financing a venue remains one of ownership’s largest expense items ( Quirk & Fort, 1999 ). However, such a focus diminishes what we know about how the revenue side of franchise profitability is affected by stakeholder relationships. Owner–Resident Identification and Revenue

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Understanding the Relationship Between Pet Ownership and Physical Activity Among Older Community-Dwelling Adults—A Mixed Methods Study

Mandy Peacock, Julie Netto, Polly Yeung, Joanne McVeigh, and Anne-Marie Hill

purposeful activities, it can help to facilitate interactions and a sense of usefulness, serving as a protective effect on disability and mortality ( Gruenewald, Karlamangla, Greendale, Singer, & Seeman, 2007 ; Reichstadt, Sengupta, Depp, Palinkas, & Jeste, 2010 ). Pet ownership is one strategy that has

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Leadership Theory and Ownership Succession in the National Football League: The Case of the Cincinnati Bengals

Daryl R. Smith and Kimberly A. Hasselfeld

The year is 2014, and the fans and media are not happy in Cincinnati. The Cincinnati Bengals have just wrapped up another disappointing year. It has now been 23 seasons under Mike Brown’s ownership and with exactly zero playoff wins. Contrast this with 23 seasons under his father, Paul Brown

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Professional Sports Team Ownership and Entrepreneurial Capitalism

William C. Flint and D. Stanley Eitzen

Three arguments concerning the ownership of professional sports are advanced in this paper. First, sports team owners do not maintain the social and corporate linkages found among capitalists in other industries. Second, these owners participate in the sports industry because it is both profitable and secure (a) through tax incentives and (b) because it is a self-regulating monopoly. Finally, the workings of a self-regulating monopoly and the popularity of sport enhance the reproduction of capitalist social relations and ideology. Sport is seen to represent the mythical ideal of meritocracy where hard work can lead to ownership and participation in America’s games. This ideal ignores the reality that sports team ownership is based on enormous wealth, not merit.

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Are “Tech-Savvy” Owners Better for Business? Evidence From Major League Baseball

Ted Hayduk III

ecosystem built around advanced analytics, interconnectivity, and automation can grow a sport organization’s bottom line. Researchers speculate that “this trend may be a sign of new ownership groups that will come into play in the future—specifically, ones that realize the need to leverage new technologies

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Dog Ownership and Physical Activity: A Review of the Evidence

Hayley E. Christian, Carri Westgarth, Adrian Bauman, Elizabeth A. Richards, Ryan E. Rhodes, Kelly R. Evenson, Joni A. Mayer, and Roland J. Thorpe Jr.

Background:

Dog walking is a strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity (PA). Numerous cross-sectional studies of the relationship between dog ownership and PA have been conducted. The purpose was to review studies comparing PA of dog owners (DO) to nondog owners (NDO), summarize the prevalence of dog walking, and provide recommendations for research.

Methods:

A review of published studies (1990−2010) examining DO and NDO PA and the prevalence of dog walking was conducted (N = 29). Studies estimating the relationship between dog ownership and PA were grouped to create a pointestimate using meta-analysis.

Results:

Most studies were conducted in the last 5 years, were cross-sectional, and sampled adults from Australia or the United States. Approximately 60% of DO walked their dog, with a median duration and frequency of 160 minutes/week and 4 walks/week, respectively. Meta-analysis showed DO engage in more walking and PA than NDO and the effect sizes are small to moderate (d = 0.26 and d = 0.16, respectively). Three studies provided evidence of a directional relationship between dog ownership and walking.

Conclusions:

Longitudinal and interventional studies would provide stronger causal evidence for the relationship between dog ownership and PA. Improved knowledge of factors associated with dog walking will guide intervention research.

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Associations Between Household Socioeconomic Status, Car Ownership, Physical Activity, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in South African Primary Schoolchildren Living in Marginalized Communities

Markus Gerber, Christin Lang, Johanna Beckmann, Jan Degen, Rosa du Randt, Stefanie Gall, Kurt Z. Long, Ivan Müller, Madeleine Nienaber, Peter Steinmann, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Siphesihle Nqweniso, and Cheryl Walter

children to school. 29 This notion seems in line with an international study comparing adult black populations from 5 different sites. 30 This study showed that in the United States, Seychelles, Jamaica, and Ghana, car ownership was associated with lower PA. However, although this relationship was not

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Dog Ownership and Health-Related Physical Activity Among Japanese Adults

Koichiro Oka and Ai Shibata

Background:

Dog ownership appears to have associated health benefits as a result of increased physical activity through dog walking. This study examined the association between dog ownership and health-related physical activity among Japanese adults.

Methods:

Male and female respondents to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey were divided into the following groups: dog owner (DOG), nondog pet owner (NDOG), and nonpet owner (NPOG). Moderate and vigorous physical activity amount (MVPA), walking amount (Walking), and sedentary behavior time (SB) were estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Analyses of covariance and logistic regression analysis were used.

Results:

The differences in MVPA, Walking, and SB were statistically significant among the three groups. DOG had a significantly greater amount of MVPA than NDOG and NPOG. DOG also had a significantly greater amount of Walking and less SB time than NPOG, and DOG was 1.5 times more likely to meet the physical activity recommendation than NDOG and NPOG.

Conclusions:

The dog owners had higher physical activity levels than owners of other kinds of pets and those without any pets, suggesting that dogs may play a major role in promoting physical activity. However, only 30% of the dog owners met the recommended criteria for physical activity.