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Mina Rasouli Mojez, Abbas Ali Gaeini, Siroos Choobineh, and Mohsen Sheykhlouvand

It is well known that there is a close relationship between lifestyle-related diseases and oxidative stress (OS), which is defined as a “state in which oxidation exceeds the antioxidant systems in the body secondary to a loss of the balance between them.” 1 Specifically, OS reflects an imbalance

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Andy J. King, Joshua T. Rowe, and Louise M. Burke

CHO hydrogel formation and delivery to the small intestine. Despite benefits to gastric emptying with hydrogel-encapsulated CHO, the rate-limiting step of exogenous CHO oxidation lies in the intestinal transport of monosaccharides. CHO = carbohydrate. Methods A search of electronic databases for

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Theodore Tsakiris, Panagoula Angelogianni, Christine Tesseromatis, Stylianos Tsakiris, and Kleopatra H. Schulpis


Forced exercise is associated with oxidative stress, and L-cysteine (L-cys) administration reduces free-radical production.


To investigate whether L-cys (5 mg/kg) intraperitoneal administration can ameliorate modulated total antioxidant status (TAS), protein concentration, and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), (Na+,K+)-ATPase, and Mg2+-ATPase in rat brain after 2 and 3 hr of forced swimming.


TAS, protein, and enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically before and after 2 and 3 hr of exercise without or with L-cys administration.


TAS concentration (55.6 ± 1.5 vs. 42.1 ± 1.0 vs. 37.4 ± 1.2 μmol/L, p < .001), protein concentration (5.68 ± 0.36 vs. 5.40 ± 0.18 vs. 4.01 ± 0.16 mg/ml, p < .01), and AChE activity (0.89 ± 0.05 vs. 0.61 ± 0.04 vs. 0.48 ± 0.03 ΔOD/min × mg protein, p < .001) were significantly reduced, whereas Na+,K+-ATPase (6.00 ± 0.36 vs. 10.44 ± 1.04 vs. 11.90 ± 1.21 µmol phosphorus inorganic/hr × mg protein, p < .001) and Mg2+-ATPase activity (7.20 ± 0.65 vs. 10.88 ± 1.08 vs. 11.55 ± 1.22 µmol phosphorus inorganic/hr × mg protein, p < .001) were statistically significantly increased after 2 and 3 hr of forced exercise. Post-L-cys administration, AChE activity was decreased (0.90 ± 0.04 vs. 0.47 ± 0.02 ΔOD/min × mg protein, p < .001) and remained unaltered (0.64 ± 0.04 vs. 0.67 ± 0.04 ΔOD/min × mg protein, p > .05) 2 and 3 hr postexercise (0.47 ± 0.02 vs. 0.54 ± 0.02 ΔOD/min × mg protein, p > .05). Na+,K+-ATPase was decreased and remained unchanged (1.85 ± 0.17 vs. 1.77 ± 0.19 µmol phosphorus inorganic/hr × mg protein, p > .05) 2 and 3 hr postswimming (1.91 ± 0.19 vs. 2.06 ±0.17 µmol phosphorus inorganic/hr × mg protein, p > .05). Mg2+-ATPase activity was similar with L-cys supplementation pre- vs. postswimming.


L-cys administration might ameliorate modulated rat brain enzyme activities induced by free-radical production during forced swimming.

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Thaís Amanda Reia, Roberta Fernanda da Silva, André Mourão Jacomini, Ana Maria Guilmo Moreno, Letícia Perticarra Ferezin, Sherliane Carla Pereira, Riccardo Lacchini, Thiago José Dionísio, Carlos Ferreira Santos, and Anderson Saranz Zago

Hypertension (HT) has stood out as the most prevalent disease in the older adult population. In addition, genetic variation has been associated with a high influence on the development of HT; thus, some polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) are studied as an important

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Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin, and Klavs Madsen

In order to maximize the adaptive response to endurance training among athletes and/or to promote healthy living in the general population, there has recently been interest in ways to increase the capacity of fat oxidation during exercise. As glycogen stores are limited, a higher reliance on fat

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Kerri Z. Delaney, Leandra Spatari, Mélanie Henderson, Sylvia Santosa, and Marie-Eve Mathieu

lipid and CHO oxidation is primarily dependent on exercise intensity ( 4 ). The cross-over concept, defined by Brooks and Mercier ( 4 ), states that as exercise intensity increases, the ratio of substrate use shifts from lipid to CHO. However, the point of cross-over and the absolute amount (mg/min) of

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Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems, Mehmet Akif Şahin, and Matthew David Cook

reported health benefits of regular intake of green tea such as a reduced risk for some cancers ( Guo et al., 2017 ) and cardiovascular and ischemic-related diseases ( Pang et al., 2016 ). Green tea has also been implicated in body weight management ( Janssens et al., 2016 ) by promoting fat oxidation

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Matthew J. McAllister, Joni A. Mettler, Kyle Patek, Matthew Butawan, and Richard J. Bloomer

), some have been found to enhance fat oxidation during exercise and improve markers of cardiometabolic health ( Brown et al., 2021 ; Soory, 2012 ). The relationship between substrate oxidation during exercise and cardiometabolic health has been recently documented such that individuals with increased

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Oliver J. Chrzanowski-Smith, Robert M. Edinburgh, Mark P. Thomas, Aaron Hengist, Sean Williams, James A. Betts, and Javier T. Gonzalez

Carbohydrate and fat represent the two main fuels oxidized during endurance-based exercise ( Romijn et al., 1993 ; van Loon et al., 2001 ). Carbohydrate utilization increases with exercise intensity, with a reciprocal decrease in the relative contribution of fat oxidation ( Achten et al., 2002

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Nicola Giovanelli, Lea Biasutti, Desy Salvadego, Hailu K. Alemayehu, Bruno Grassi, and Stefano Lazzer

running on muscle oxidative functions in rats were investigated by Kano et al. 12 These authors observed that 1 and 3 days after a downhill run to exhaustion, capillary hemodynamic and Q ˙ O 2 / V ˙ O 2 matching were still compromised. Moreover, Kano et al 12 suggested that the fiber damage after