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Jon L. Weller

In Alberta, Canada in the early 1970s garages, workshops, and barns across the province were heavy with polyester resin fumes. As the rivers that flow out of the Rocky Mountains continued their steady progress to the east, would-be paddlers in Alberta worked feverishly building new fiberglass

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Thiago Oliveira Borges, Nicola Bullock, David Aitken, Gregory R. Cox, and Aaron J. Coutts

different kayak ergometers utilizing a randomized counterbalanced pair-matched design 48 hours apart, with a controlled light ∼45-minute steady paddle <60% maximal heart rate between testing days. This study was approved by the Australian Institute of Sport Ethics Committee (201210010). Participants Six

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Jeff A. Nessler, Thomas Hastings, Kevin Greer, and Sean C. Newcomer

across several age groups, including older adults. 3 , 4 During a typical surf session, recreational surfers spend a majority of their time paddling (44–58%) and only 4% to 8% of their time riding waves. 3 , 5 – 8 Lying prone on the surfboard while paddling requires repetitive bouts of back, shoulder

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Selina J. Kendal and Ross H. Sanders

The technique of elite New Zealand kayak paddlers using the Norwegian wing paddle was analyzed to identify factors leading to success. Five male New Zealand kayak paddlers were filmed with two high-speed cinematographic cameras. Paths of the blade tip and joint centers were determined from film data. Velocities ranged from 4.63 to 5.38 m/s. Stroke frequency ranged from l .93 to 2.26 cycles/s. Results indicated that the more successful paddlers, based on previous competitive performances, had similar movement patterns and blade paths and that these differed from those of less successful paddlers. Their blade tip and joint center paths were more consistent across trials. More successful paddlers entered their blade well forward and closer to the longitudinal axis of the kayak than did less successful paddlers, and moved the blade a large distance laterally from the kayak and only a small distance backward with respect to the water.

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Johanna S. Rosén, Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Keith Tolfrey, Anton Arndt, and Anna Bjerkefors

Para Va'a is a canoeing sport performed in a Polynesian outrigger canoe, propelled by a single-blade paddle on flat or open water, by athletes with physical impairments. Para Va'a makes its debut as a Paralympic sport at the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games after the International Paralympic Committee

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Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee

control because the postural sway induced by the paddling movement must be compensated for, which constantly challenges the ability of participants to maintain their posture ( Bjerkefors, Carpenter, & Thorstensson, 2007 ; Grigorenko et al., 2004 ). Individuals who perform kayaking have better

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Johnny E. Nilsson and Hans G. Rosdahl

The purpose was to investigate the contribution of leg-muscle-generated forces to paddle force and kayak speed during maximaleffort flat-water paddling. Five elite male kayakers at national and international level participated. The participants warmed up at progressively increasing speeds and then performed a maximal-effort, nonrestricted paddling sequence. This was followed after 5 min rest by a maximal-effort paddling sequence with the leg action restricted—the knee joints “locked.” Left- and rightside foot-bar and paddle forces were recorded with specially designed force devices. In addition, knee angular displacement of the right and left knees was recorded with electrogoniometric technique, and the kayak speed was calculated from GPS signals sampled at 5 Hz. The results showed that reduction in both push and pull foot-bar forces resulted in a reduction of 21% and 16% in mean paddle-stroke force and mean kayak speed, respectively. Thus, the contribution of foot-bar force from lower-limb action significantly contributes to kayakers’ paddling performance.

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Pablo M. García-Rovés, Serafina Fernández, Manuel Rodríguez, Javier Pérez-Landaluce, and Angeles M. Patterson

The aim of this study is to accurately describe the eating pattern and nutritional status of international elite flatwater paddlers during 1 week of a high volume training camp. Ten male and 5 female international elite flatwater paddlers were recruited to take part in this study. These athletes were all members of the Spanish National Team. To assess the intake of energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients, we used the weighed food intake method carried out by an observer. Biochemical and hematological profiles were also obtained. Average daily energy intake in male and female flatwater paddlers was 21.5 ± 2.3 and 16.5 ± 1.7 MJ, respectively. Furthermore, the male athletes showed average carbohydrate and protein intakes of 7.5 ±0.8 and 2.2 ±0.3 g ·kg·1 body weight - day ’, respectively. Similar intakes were found in female paddlers. carbohydrate 7.3 ± 1.1 and protein 2.0±0.3g·kg·1 body weight·day·1. Daily relative contribution to energy from fat was higher than recommended for sports practitioners or sedentary people (< 30 % of daily energy) in both genders (39.1 ± 2.1 and 40.2± 2.9% for men and women, respectively). Nevertheless, this diet with a high fat content (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids) did not seem to influence the paddlers’ blood lipid profile that presented low values for total cholesterol and tryglicerides and high values for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol). Flatwater paddlers’ micronutrient intake was higher than Recommended Dietary Allowances/Dietary Reference Intake (RDA/DRIs), except for folate that is close to DRI values. Further studies are required in order to understand whether this level of fat intake could impair highly trained athletes’ performance and health.

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Clare L. Minahan, Danielle J. Pirera, Beth Sheehan, Luke MacDonald, and Phillip M. Bellinger

This study compared determinants of a 30-s all-out paddling effort (30-s sprint-paddling test) between junior surfboard riders (surfers) of varying ability. Eight competitive (COMP) and 8 recreational (REC) junior male surfers performed a 30-s sprint-paddling test for the determination of peak sprint power and accumulated O2 deficit. Surfers also performed an incremental-paddling test for the determination of the O2 uptake–power output relationship that was subsequently used to calculate the accumulated O2 deficit for the 30-s sprint-paddling test. During the 30-s sprint-paddling test, peak sprint power (404 ± 98 vs 292 ± 56 W, respectively, P = .01) and the accumulated O2 deficit (1.60 ± 0.31 vs 1.14 ± 0.38 L, respectively, P = .02) were greater in COMP than in REC surfers, whereas peak O2 uptake measured during the incremental-paddling test was not different (2.7 ± 0.1 vs 2.5 ± 0.2 L/min, respectively, P = .11). The higher peak sprint power and larger accumulated O2 deficit observed in COMP than in REC surfers during a 30-s sprint paddling test suggest that surfing promotes development of the anaerobic energy systems. Furthermore, peak sprint power determined during 30 s of sprint paddling may be considered a sensitive measure of surfing ability or experience in junior male surfers.

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Beatriz B. Gomes, Nuno V. Ramos, Filipe A.V. Conceição, Ross H. Sanders, Mário A.P. Vaz, and João Paulo Vilas-Boas

In sprint kayaking the role that paddling technique plays in optimizing paddle forces and resultant kayak kinematics is still unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the magnitude and shape of the paddle force–time curve at different stroke rates, and their implications for kayak performance. Ten elite kayak paddlers (5 males and 5 females) were analyzed while performing 2000-m on-water trials, at 4 different paces (60, 80, and 100 strokes per minute, and race pace). The paddle and kayak were instrumented with strain gauges and accelerometers, respectively. For both sexes, the force–time curves were characterized at training pace by having a bell shape and at race pace by a first small peak, followed by a small decrease in force and then followed by a main plateau. The force profile, represented by the mean force/peak force ratio, became more rectangular with increasing stroke rate (F[3,40] = 7.87, P < .01). To obtain a rectangular shape to maximize performance, kayak paddlers should seek a stronger water phase with a rapid increase in force immediately after blade entry, and a quick exit before the force dropping far below the maximum force. This pattern should be sought when training at race pace and in competition.