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Volker Cihlar and Sonia Lippke

factors which contribute significantly to quality of life and wellbeing, such as interacting with people and social engagement ( Kuykendall, Tay, & Ng, 2015 ). This can happen in the form of paid work, active citizenship, and family engagement. All these activities are important factors for active and

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Hugh Millward, Jamie E. L. Spinney and Darren Scott


This study employs national time-diary data to evaluate how much aerobic activity Canadians engage in on a daily basis, how that activity is apportioned by activity domain, and how subgroups within the population vary in their aerobic attainment.


The study employs time-use data from the 2010 General Social Survey of Canada, for 15,390 respondents aged 15 and older. To estimate effort levels, the authors harmonized survey codes with those in the Compendium of Physical Activities. Aerobic activity was defined as moderate or vigorous effort at 3.5 Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) or higher.


Among the 4 activity domains, aerobic participation is highest in leisure activities, followed by chores, paid work, and active transportation (AT). Only a minority (42%) of respondents recorded at least 20 mins/day of aerobic activity. Aerobic totals were particularly low for women and those in poor or fair health, and low for students, 15- to 24-year-olds, and those residing in Quebec, Ontario, and larger cities.


The majority of Canadian adults are failing to meet recommended aerobic activity levels. However, there is considerable opportunity to increase aerobic participation for some groups, particularly women and young adults, especially in the leisure and AT domains.

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Kazuhiro Harada, Sangyoon Lee, Sungchul Lee, Seongryu Bae, Yuya Anan, Kenji Harada and Hiroyuki Shimada

score for each item was from 1 to 4, and the total possible score for all the items ranged from 6 to 24. Gender (men or women), age, years of education, employment in paid work (yes or no), living alone (yes or no), driving a car and/or motorbike (yes or no), current drinking and/or smoking habit (yes

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Sara L. Giovannetti, Jessica R.G. Robertson, Heather L. Colquhoun and Cindy K. Malachowski

to your varsity sport?  12. Do you currently have a paid work position outside of school?  13. Do you currently participate in volunteer work? Section B: Extent of and Perceived Contributors to Mental Health Issues  14. Have you ever been diagnosed with any of the following mental health conditions

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Mette Rørth, Tine Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Prue Cormie, John L. Oliffe and Julie Midtgaard

demands of paid work and family provider roles. Along with these freedoms came options for more hedonistic practices in the pursuit of pleasure, and the embrace of the familiar. The participants talked about risk in relative terms reflecting on sports injuries in relation to their bodies versus the risk

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Christianne M. Eason, Stephanie M. Singe and Kelsey Rynkiewicz

, Switzerland : Springer International Publishing ; 2015 : 141 – 157 . 31. Duncan S , Edwards R , Reynolds T , Aldred P . Motherhood, paid work and partnering: values and theories . Work Employ Soc . 2003 ; 17 ( 2 ): 309 – 330 . doi: 10.1177/0950017003017002005 32. Aycan Z , Eskin M

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Allyson C. Hartzell and Marlene A. Dixon

workforce completely to focus on raising their children ( Hewlett & Luce, 2005 ; Moen & Sweet, 2004 ; Sweet & Moen, 2006 ). Because of the typical structure of paid work, most workers struggle to modify their lives to fit into a system that is not conducive to having a balance between work and family

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle and Chantel Hunter

support. From our sample, 56% (n = 15) had spouses who did not engage in paid work. The terms “family” and “spouse” were used interchangeably, but ultimately were discussed as having support from the domestic aspect of life. Organizational Support Organizational support was classified as employing an

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Amanda E. Paluch, Robin P. Shook, Gregory A. Hand, Daniel P. O’Connor, Sara Wilcox, Clemens Drenowatz, Meghan Baruth, Stephanie Burgess and Steven N. Blair

’s Health, finding that women who began paid work during a 4-year follow-up were significantly less active than women who did not start a job. 25 Results were mixed for the associations between relationship-type life events with PA. At the between-individual level, men who started or ended a relationship

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Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Mats Hallgren, Andreas Lundin, James Mugisha and Ai Koyanagi

paid work ≥2 days in last 7 days: Y/N), household size (1, 2, and ≥3), and setting (urban or rural). A hierarchical ordered probit model was used to create an index of household asset ownership of durable goods, dwelling characteristics, and access to services (e.g., improved water, sanitation, cooking