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Leila Ahmadnezhad, Ali Yalfani and Behnam Gholami Borujeni

effective in patients with CLBP. The present research was, therefore, conducted to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of IMT on core muscle activity, pulmonary function, and pain intensity in athletes with CLBP. Methods Study Design The present single-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in

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Yaser Alikhajeh, Elyas Barabadi and Gholam Rasul Mohammad Rahimi

, no study has compared the effect of these 2 types of treatments or their joint effect. No consensus exists on whether AE or KT is the more effective therapeutic method for LBP. This study aimed to compare the impact of AE and KT on pain intensity and functional incapacity in women with chronic

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Paula Chaves, Daniela Simões, Maria Paço, Sandra Silva, Francisco Pinho, José Alberto Duarte and Fernando Ribeiro

inducing better outcomes. To test this hypothesis, this study aims to assess whether the immediate effects of DFM on clinical outcomes, namely pain (pain intensity upon palpation and time to onset of analgesia), and muscle strength are dependent on the pressure applied during the DFM application in

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Eduardo L. Caputo, Paulo H. Ferreira, Manuela L. Ferreira, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Marlos R. Domingues, Debra Shirley and Marcelo C. Silva

trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Further methodological details of the 2015 cohort study are available elsewhere. 16 To answer the question about whether physical activity affects pain intensity, activity limitation, and care seeking associated with LBP during pregnancy, we only

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Marc-Olivier St-Aubin, Philippe Chalaye, François-Pierre Counil and Sylvie Lafrenaye

corresponds to no pain and 10 corresponds to most intense pain tolerable) was used to verbally rate pain intensity during the mild and strong pain stimulations. The numeric rating scale has good validity and reliability for pain intensity evaluation in a pediatric population ( 2 ). Mild and Strong Heat Pain

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Pablo Fanlo-Mazas, Elena Bueno-Gracia, Alazne Ruiz de Escudero-Zapico, José Miguel Tricás-Moreno and María Orosia Lucha-López

by the same examiner blinded to the nature of measurement. Figure 1 —Measurement of PCD on ultrasound scan. PCD indicates patella-condyle distance. The PCD was measured before the intervention, after the intervention (posttreatment effect), and 1 week later (follow-up effect). Pain Intensity Usual

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Fatemeh Ehsani, Rozita Hedayati, Rasool Bagheri and Shapour Jaberzadeh

assessed before and after treatments (Table  1 ). Outcome Measures Pain and Disability Pain intensity was assessed using a 0 to 100 numerical rating scale (VAS), with 0 representing no pain and 100 representing the worst imaginable pain. Functional disability was assessed by the Persian version of Roland

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Marcin Grzes´kowiak, Zbigniew Krawiecki, Wojciech Łabe˛dz´, Jacek Kaczmarczyk, Jacek Lewandowski and Dawid Łochyn´ski

35 , (2) pain intensity assessed with Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale (QVAS) 36 , (3) myofascial stiffness-related pain assessed by pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) 37 of lower back soft tissues with the digital algometry (FDIX, Wagner Instruments, Greenwich, CT), and (4) back extension maximum

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Fahimeh Kamali, Ehsan Sinaei and Maryam Morovati

active MTrPs in both UT and ISP muscles. Active MTrPs were identified by palpating a taut band with a tender spot in the muscle that reproduced referred pain similar to the patient’s familiar pain in response to compression. Subjects’ pain intensity should be at least 3 out of 10 on a visual analog scale

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Taha Ibrahim Yildiz, Elif Turgut and Irem Duzgun

. Cervical lateral glides and cervical traction were performed after soft tissue mobilizations. Both groups received the same manual therapy program once a week for 6 weeks, and each manual therapy session lasted for 15 to 20 minutes. 28 Outcome Measures Pain The pain-intensity level was measured using a