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Scott W. Cheatham and Morey J. Kolber

neurological mechanism may be responsible for this crossover effect which is consistent with previous reports. 4 , 6 , 10 Other studies have measured the direct and crossover pressure pain threshold (PPT) in lower extremity muscle groups after a RM intervention. Pearcy et al 3 measured the effects of foam

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Scott W. Cheatham, Kyle R. Stull and Morey J. Kolber

without decreasing muscle performance, which may be ideal for a preexercise warm-up and postexercise cool down. 1 – 3 RM may help to attenuate decrements in muscle performance and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). 1 – 3 RM may also increase posttreatment pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), 4 reduce

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Athanasios Trampas, Anastasia Mpeneka, Vivian Malliou, George Godolias and Periklis Vlachakis


Previous studies showed improved dynamic-balance (DB) performance after core-stability (CS) exercises in populations with chronic low back pain. Although clinical massage plus exercise is likely to better enhance analgesia than exercise alone, its efficacy on balance remains unclear.


To evaluate the immediate effects of CS exercises plus myofascial trigger-point (MTrP) therapy in comparison with CS exercises alone on DB performance, pressure-pain threshold (PPT), and cross-sectional area of active MTrPs in patients with clinical instability of the lumbar spine and chronic myofascial pain syndrome.


Randomized, assessor-blind, test–retest.


University research laboratory.


10 physically active adults (5 men, 5 women).

Main Outcome Measures:

Single-leg DB performance and side-to-side ratios in 2 planes of motion (frontal, sagittal), as well as PPT and cross-sectional area of active MTrPs, were measured using stabilometry, pressure algometry, and real-time ultrasound scanning, respectively.


The 1st group performed CS exercises alone, whereas the same exercise program was applied in the 2nd group plus cross-fiber friction on active MTrPs (3.5 min/MTrP).


Within-group statistically and clinically significant differences were observed only for group II in PPT. However, group I also exhibited a large effect size with clinically significant changes from baseline on this outcome. Furthermore, patients in group II clinically improved their balance ratios and differed from group I at posttest in sagittal-plane DB performance of the painful side.


CS exercises immediately increase the PPT of active MTrPs in physically active adults with clinical instability of the lumbar spine and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. When MTrP therapy is added, side-to-side asymmetries in DB are minimized.

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Todd A. Evans, Jennifer R. Kunkle, Krista M. Zinz, Jessica L. Walter and Craig R. Denegar


To assess the efficacy of lidocaine iontophoresis on myofascial trigger-point pain.


University athletic training facility.


Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures.


Twenty-three subjects with sensitive trigger points over the trapezius.


Placebo iontophoresis treatment without current or lidocaine, control treatment using distilled water and normal current dose, medicated treatment using 1% lidocaine and normal current dose.

Main Outcome Measure:

Trigger-point pressure threshold assessed with an algometer.


ANOVA revealed a significant difference among treatments (F 2,40 = 7.38, P < .01). Post hoc comparisons revealed a significant difference in pressure threshold between the lidocaine treatment and the control (P = .01) and placebo (P = .001) treatments. Effect sizes of .28 and .39, respectively, were found for these comparisons.


Although the data revealed significant differences between treatments, the small effect sizes and magnitude of the pressure-sensitivity deviation scores suggest that iontophoresis with 1% lidocaine is ineffective in treating trigger points.

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Scott W. Cheatham and Kyle R. Stull

muscle performance, 21 – 25 increase posttreatment pressure pain threshold (PPT), 15 , 16 , 23 , 25 – 27 and reduce the effects of delayed-onset muscle soreness in healthy individuals. 21 , 22 , 28 – 30 Several recent studies have documented positive posttreatment effects of RM for different sports

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Adam D. Osmond, Dean J. Directo, Marcus L. Elam, Gabriela Juache, Vince C. Kreipke, Desiree E. Saralegui, Robert Wildman, Michael Wong and Edward Jo

adjusted ratings were used for analysis. Localized Pressure–Pain Threshold A pressure algometer was utilized to identify a pressure–pain threshold as a reflection of muscle tissue tenderness. The pain threshold was defined as the minimum pressure (N) that was sensed as pain when it was applied to muscle

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Marcin Grzes´kowiak, Zbigniew Krawiecki, Wojciech Łabe˛dz´, Jacek Kaczmarczyk, Jacek Lewandowski and Dawid Łochyn´ski

35 , (2) pain intensity assessed with Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale (QVAS) 36 , (3) myofascial stiffness-related pain assessed by pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) 37 of lower back soft tissues with the digital algometry (FDIX, Wagner Instruments, Greenwich, CT), and (4) back extension maximum

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Barton P. Buxton and David H. Perrin

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between personality characteristics, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (form G), and an acute pain response in 107 postadolescent men. Subjects included 107 military school cadets. Each subject performed a cold pressor test (CPT) and was evaluated for pain threshold and pain tolerance times. Each was then evaluated for preference on eight personality characteristics: extraversion, introversion, sensing, intuition, thinking, feeling, judging, and perception. The personality characteristics were measured by the MBT1 (form G). Pearson product-moment correlations between the pain threshold and tolerance times and the eight personality characteristic scores were nonsignificant. The results indicated there was no relationship between the eight personality characteristics, as measured by the MBTI (form G), and pain threshold or pain tolerance, as measured by the CPT, The findings also indicated a low correlation between pain threshold and pain tolerance (r=.25).

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Barton P. Buxton, David H. Perrin, Ronald K. Hetzler, Kwok W. Ho and Joe H. Gieck

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between ethnicity and acute pain response in male athletes. Subjects included 93 male athletes (age = 18.65 ± .58 years) of differing ethnicity. Each subject performed a Cold Pressor Test (CPT) and was evaluated for pain threshold and pain tolerance times. Two one-way analyses of variance were performed to analyze the data. The results indicated that significant differences existed in pain tolerance times between ethnic groups (p<.05). However, no differences were observed in pain threshold times. These findings support the existence of a difference in pain tolerance between ethnic groups in collegiate athletes.