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Zachary L. Mannes, Erin G. Ferguson, Nicole Ennis, Deborah S. Hasin, and Linda B. Cottler

demonstrating the high rates of daily pain and its negative consequences among NFL retirees, studies have yet to delineate between the physical and psychological risk factors of pain intensity in this group. Much of the older biomedical literature examined chronic pain from a physical medicine point of view

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Gopal Nambi, Walid Kamal Abdelbasset, Saud F. Alsubaie, Ayman K. Saleh, Anju Verma, Mohamed A. Abdelaziz, and Abdulaziz A. Alkathiry

not include other sports-related back pain. Inclusion criteria for selection of the subjects were as follows: university American soccer players, males in the age group of 18–25 years, chronic (≥3 mo) LBP, and 4 to 8 pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). Participants with severe

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Leila Ahmadnezhad, Ali Yalfani, and Behnam Gholami Borujeni

effective in patients with CLBP. The present research was, therefore, conducted to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of IMT on core muscle activity, pulmonary function, and pain intensity in athletes with CLBP. Methods Study Design The present single-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in

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Hansel R. García-Correa, Lida J. Sánchez-Montoya, Jorge E. Daza-Arana, and Leidy T. Ordoñez-Mora

the 4 limbs. FIQ subscale for pain intensity (0–100 mm), SF-36, and hand grip (Grippit). Ferrell et al 30 United States, 1996 PM: N = 10 W: N = 9 C: N = 10 PM: 74.4 (4.0) W: 72.3 (3.4) C: 72.7 (3.8) Pain in the lower extremities or chronic lower back pain PM: Physical modalities and education. W: Low

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Yaser Alikhajeh, Elyas Barabadi, and Gholam Rasul Mohammad Rahimi

, no study has compared the effect of these 2 types of treatments or their joint effect. No consensus exists on whether AE or KT is the more effective therapeutic method for LBP. This study aimed to compare the impact of AE and KT on pain intensity and functional incapacity in women with chronic

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Thalysi M. Hisamatsu, Crystian B. Oliveira, Fábio S. Lira, Priscila K. Morelhão, Bruna R. Azevedo, Ítalo R. Lemes, Márcia R. Franco, and Rafael Z. Pinto

-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been found to be associated with high levels of pain intensity. 8 However, a recent review showed low quality evidence that physical activity may not be a prognostic factor for predicting pain and disability in this population. 9 The

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Paula Chaves, Daniela Simões, Maria Paço, Sandra Silva, Francisco Pinho, José Alberto Duarte, and Fernando Ribeiro

inducing better outcomes. To test this hypothesis, this study aims to assess whether the immediate effects of DFM on clinical outcomes, namely pain (pain intensity upon palpation and time to onset of analgesia), and muscle strength are dependent on the pressure applied during the DFM application in

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Eduardo L. Caputo, Paulo H. Ferreira, Manuela L. Ferreira, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Marlos R. Domingues, Debra Shirley, and Marcelo C. Silva

trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Further methodological details of the 2015 cohort study are available elsewhere. 16 To answer the question about whether physical activity affects pain intensity, activity limitation, and care seeking associated with LBP during pregnancy, we only

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Marc-Olivier St-Aubin, Philippe Chalaye, François-Pierre Counil, and Sylvie Lafrenaye

corresponds to no pain and 10 corresponds to most intense pain tolerable) was used to verbally rate pain intensity during the mild and strong pain stimulations. The numeric rating scale has good validity and reliability for pain intensity evaluation in a pediatric population ( 2 ). Mild and Strong Heat Pain

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Pablo Fanlo-Mazas, Elena Bueno-Gracia, Alazne Ruiz de Escudero-Zapico, José Miguel Tricás-Moreno, and María Orosia Lucha-López

by the same examiner blinded to the nature of measurement. Figure 1 —Measurement of PCD on ultrasound scan. PCD indicates patella-condyle distance. The PCD was measured before the intervention, after the intervention (posttreatment effect), and 1 week later (follow-up effect). Pain Intensity Usual