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David R. Axon and Niloufar Emami

). Pain can be described as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage ( International Association for the Study of Pain [IASP], 1994 ). Further research into effective pain management strategies is warranted

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James Stephens and Susan Hillier

In this paper, we review experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the Feldenkrais method (FM) in changing performance in the areas of general function, mobility, and balance, as well as for pain management. We primarily focus on results from randomized-control-trial (RCT) studies but also

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Hansel R. García-Correa, Lida J. Sánchez-Montoya, Jorge E. Daza-Arana, and Leidy T. Ordoñez-Mora

.04.002 10.1016/j.aat.2015.04.002 26026843 6. O’Brien T , Christrup L , Drewes A . European Pain Federation position paper on appropriate opioid use in chronic pain management . Eur. J. Pain . 2017 ; 21 ( 1 ): 3 – 19 . 10.1002/ejp.970 27991730 7. Passos G , Poyares D , Santana M , D

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Kevin B. Gebke

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Elizabeth Swann and Susanne J. Graner

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Salvatore Masala, Roberto Fiori, Mario Raguso, Christine Ojango, Marco Morini, Alessandro Cuzzolino, Eros Calabria, and Giovanni Simonetti

Context:

Chronic pubalgia affects around 10% of athletes.

Objective:

To determine the role of pulse-dose radiofrequency (PDRF) in athletes with chronic pubalgia and investigate the causes with imaging.

Design:

Prospective nonrandomized single-group study.

Patients:

PDRF was performed on 32 patients with a chronic pain that had been refractory to conservative therapies during the last 3 mo.

Intervention:

The genital branches of the genitofemoral, ilioinguinal, and iliohypogastric nerves and the obturator nerve were the goals of treatment. A 10-cm, 20-gauge cannula was inserted with a percutaneous access on the upper and lower edges of the iliopubic branch. After the spindle was removed, a radiofrequency needle with a 10-mm “active tip” was inserted. The radiofrequency technique was performed with 1200 pulses at 45 V and 20-ms duration, followed by a 480-ms silent phase.

Main Outcome Measures:

The follow-up with a clinical examination was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 9 mo after the procedure. During the follow-up visits, the patients were asked to rate their pain on a 0–10 VAS scale.

Results:

All of the enrolled patients completed the study. Mean VAS score before the treatment was 8.4 ± 0.6. Twenty-four patients had a reduction of pain VAS scores more than 50% during all follow-up visits and started training and physiotherapy in the days after the radiofrequency procedure. Six patients, each treated 2 times, had a reduction more than 50% of VAS scores and could start training and physiotherapy only after the 2nd procedure. One patient had no pain relief with 2 treatments. Pain intensity decreased up to 9 mo in 31 patients (mean VAS scores 3.4 ± 0.5 at 6 mo and 3.8 ± 0.9 at 9 mo). No complications were observed.

Conclusions:

PDRF is an effective and safe technique in management of chronic pubalgia in athletes.

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Gina E. McAlear and Jennifer K. Popp

emergency room. The patient was administered sedatives and morphine in the hospital, resulting in no changes to her level of pain. During the second day of the hospital admission, a pain management physician administered an intravenous lidocaine solution, which provided immediate pain relief, and any

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Jim Taylor and Shel Taylor

This article addresses the essential role that pain plays in the rehabilitation of sports injury. It will describe important information and approaches that applied sport psychologists can use to more effectively manage pain in injured athletes. The article includes a brief discussion of the most accepted theories of pain. Types of pain that injured athletes may experience and how they can learn to discriminate between them will be discussed. The article will also consider how pain can be a useful tool as information about injured athletes’ current status in recovery and the need to modify their rehabilitation regimens. The value of measuring pain will be examined with emphasis on determining a simple and easy means of assessing pain. Next, the article will examine why nonpharmacological pain management may be a useful adjunct to pharmacological pain control. Then, a brief description of the most commonly used pain medications and a detailed description of common nonpharmacological pain-management strategies will be furnished. A discussion of how nonpharmacological pain management can be incorporated into the traditional rehabilitation process will be offered. Finally, the article will describe the role that sport psychologists can play in the management of sport injury-related pain. The objective of this article is to provide applied practitioners with the knowledge and tools necessary to assist injured athletes in mitigating the pain they will experience during recovery as a means of facilitating their rehabilitation and return to sport.

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Kelli F. Koltyn

Chronic pain is a significant problem for many older adults. Strategies for pain management appear to be limited, with the prescription of analgesic medication used most often to treat pain. Older adults, however, are often sensitive to adverse side effects from analgesic medications, so nonpharmacological strategies for treating pain are receiving increased attention. This review article summarizes results from studies that have examined whether improvements in pain occur after an exercise intervention. Limited research has been conducted, and it can be characterized as both experimental and quasi-experimental. In addition, pain has usually been a secondary variable assessed in conjunction with a number of other variables. Results from most studies indicate that improvement in pain can occur after exercise training, but several investigators did not find changes in pain after an exercise-training program. Even less research has been conducted with older adults residing in assisted-care facilities, and this research is limited by small sample sizes.

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Leilani Madrigal

Psychological skills such as goal setting, imagery, relaxation and self-talk have been used in performance enhancement, emotional regulation, and increasing one’s confidence and/or motivation in sport. These skills can also be applied with athletes during recovery from injury in the rehabilitation setting or in preseason meetings for preventing injury. Research on psychological skill use with athletes has shown that such skills have helped reduce negative psychological outcomes, improve coping skills, and reduce reinjury anxiety (Evans & Hardy, 2002; Johnson, 2000; Mankad & Gordon, 2010). Although research has been limited in psychological skill implementation with injured athletes, these skills can be used when working with injured athletes or in the prevention of injury. Injured athletes may use psychological skills such as setting realistic goals in coming back from injury, imagery to facilitate rehabilitation, and relaxation techniques to deal with pain management. In prevention of injury, the focus is on factors that put an individual at-risk for injury. Thus, teaching strategies of goal setting, imagery, relaxation techniques, and attention/focus can be instrumental in preparing athletes for a healthy season.