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Inhyang Choi, Damian Haslett, Javier Monforte, and Brett Smith

Para-sport activism is gaining attention around the world due to the potential of disabled elite athletes to highlight forms of oppression that disabled people experience, such as negative attitudes, inaccessible environments, or social exclusion (see Haslett & Smith, 2020 ). In Para-sport

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Shana E. Harrington, Sean McQueeney, and Marcus Fearing

challenge to Para sport competition is the threat of one-sided and predictable competition, in which the least impaired athlete always wins. 6 In Olympic competition, the results of a competition are based on each athlete’s skill, fitness, power, endurance, tactical ability, and mental focus. 7 To promote

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Erik L. Lachance and Milena M. Parent

through a focus on the impacts and interrelationships of satisfaction, motivation, commitment, and sense of community, rather than a single outcome (e.g., satisfaction). An additional issue within the sport (event) volunteer literature pertains to research on para-sport (event) volunteers. In comparison

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Darda Sales and Laura Misener

due, in part, to a general lack of research into para sport ( Jaarsma et al., 2014 ). Dehghansai et al. ( 2017 ) conducted a systematic review of the literature related to the development of para athletes showing only four articles focused on long-term development frameworks. Mann et al. ( 2017

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Matías Henríquez, Aitor Iturricastillo, Arturo González-Olguín, Felipe Herrera, Sonny Riquelme, and Raul Reina

modifications in the rules (e.g., five substitutions, no offside) and the field dimensions (i.e., 70 × 50 m) to be played by para-athletes with eligible impairments of hypertonia, ataxia, or dyskinesia. Despite the adaptations included in this para-sport, a lot of training methods are used with CP Football

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Javier Yanci, Daniel Castillo, Aitor Iturricastillo, Astrid Aracama, Alba Roldan, and Raúl Reina

Football (soccer) for people with cerebral palsy (CP) is a para-sport regulated at the international level by the International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football. It is a sport discipline that is practiced by footballers with central neurological injuries like CP, traumatic brain injury, or

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Damian Haslett, Javier Monforte, Inhyang Choi, and Brett Smith

Academic literature highlights arguments for and against promoting disability activism through Para sport contexts (see Haslett & Smith, 2020 ). One argument against promoting disability activism is that the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) has been, historically, a source of annoyance

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Aitor Iturricastillo, Javier Yanci, and Cristina Granados

The aim was to analyze the changes of physical performance and physiological responses during a high-intensity training task in wheelchair basketball (WB) players. Thirteen Spanish first division WB male players participated in this study. A test battery (change of direction ability, sprints, and sled towing) was performed to study neuromuscular responses before (pre) and after (post) the small-sided games (SSG). Furthermore, tympanic temperature and blood lactate concentration were measured before and immediately after players finished the SSG. The SSG tasks consisted in four players against four, 4 bouts of 4 min with 2 min of recovery periods. There was a 1.10% decline in performance in both 5- and 20-m sprints (p < .01; effect size [ES] ≤ 0.14), 1.82% decline in 5-m sled towing (p < .05; ES = 0.18), and 2.68% decline in 20-m sled towing (p < .01; ES = 0.27) between pre- and post-SSG. As in physical performance results, significant differences were observed between pre and post in physiological markers, with increasing tympanic temperature (36.21 ± 0.60 °C to 36.97 ± 0.59 °C; p < .001; ES = 1.27) and blood lactate concentrations (1.95 ± 1.30 mmol/L to 5.84 ± 2.04 mmol/L; p < .001; ES = 2.99) after SSG. The SSG produced a decrease in sprint and sled towing performance after 16 min of intense exercise. Moreover, the decrease in physical performance was accompanied with an increase in physiological responses. These neuromuscular responses could be similar in the real game; thus, coaching staff could benefit from this information when changing bench players.

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Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard, and Louise M. Burke

acclimation strategies (e.g., hot bath or sauna posttraining). Para-sport athletes Reduced thermoregulatory sweating and cutaneous blood flow in athletes with spinal cord lesions, with greater impairments with higher spinal cord lesions. Amputees have reduced skin surface area to dissipate heat, and

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Nima Dehghansai, Daniel Spedale, Melissa J. Wilson, and Joseph Baker

In recent decades, research pertaining to able-bodied (AB) athletes’ development has seen tremendous growth, while little attention has been given to Para sport athletes ( Dehghansai, Lemez, Wattie, & Baker, 2017a ). This is surprising, considering the growth of Para sport systems across the globe