; Quehl et al., 1999 ). The goal of education was to complete a curriculum (which interestingly stems from a Latin word meaning “a race” or “racecourse”) and to earn a diploma or degree. At that time, the instruction paradigm took hold of North American higher education ( Tagg, 2003 ). Grounded in
Kyle Paquette and Pierre Trudel
Maureen R. Weiss
-standing sport-science literature. Thus, I intentionally review influential scholarship by founding fathers and mothers (and their offspring) on youth sport motivation over the past 40 years through the lens of three foci: • Paradigms: What describes the dominant research views and methods across the decades
Andrew Hooyman, Alexander Garbin, and Beth Fisher
Background Modulation of Intracortical Connectivity Current non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) paradigms, Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), focus on changing behaviors through up or down regulation of a single cortical region
Mark S. Tremblay
the field of time-use epidemiology, an example of which is compositional analyses of 24-hour movement guidelines. Recent Guideline Developments Commensurate with the rapidly emerging evidence supporting the 24-hour guideline paradigm, several jurisdictions have developed public health guidelines
Maria K. Talarico, Matthew P. Brancaleone, Kayla E. Berezne, James A. Onate, and Laura C. Boucher
Key Points ▸ Multidirectional gait dual-task paradigm elicited motor performance deficits for all athletes regardless of concussion. ▸ Athletes with a concussion history were less accurate during Stroop under single- and dual-task paradigms. ▸ Clinicians may use these findings to implement dynamic
Paul R. Geisler and Todd Lazenby
Clinical practice in sports medicine is often guided by axioms or paradigms of practice, some of which have persisted over time despite a lack of objective evidence to support their validity. Evidence-based practice compels practicing clinicians to not only seek out and produce evidence that informs their decision-making, but also to challenge existing paradigms of thought and practice, especially when favorable treatment outcomes remain elusive. Insidious, load induced lateral knee pain around the iliotibial band in runners, cyclists, military personnel, rowers, and other athletes has for decades now been conceptualized as iliotibial band friction syndrome, a biomechanically based and unsubstantiated paradigm based on Renne’s 1975 theory that the iliotibial band slips back and forth over the lateral femoral epicondyle during flexion and extension movements of the knee, primarily irritating the underlying bursa and even the iliotibial band itself. Newer evidence about the anatomy and biomechanics of the iliotibial band, the physiology of the condition, and interventional outcomes is now available to challenge that long-held paradigm of thought for iliotibial band related pathology. Given this plethora of new information available for clinical scientists, iliotibial band impingement syndrome is proposed here as a new, evidence-informed paradigm for evaluating and treating this problematic overuse syndrome.
Francis M. Kozub and Christoph Lienert
This review explores the known literature with respect to attitudes and introduces a criterion paradigm to aid future researchers in studying links to attitude behavior. Prior writing has varied from a more atheoretical study of attitude behavior to a focus using theories from other disciplines, most notably the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985). The premise of this paper is that attitude study should progress beyond basic description regarding profiles of pre and inservice teachers to the study of teacher and learner behaviors as a function of known attitude profiles and other mediating variables.
Landon B. Lempke, Jeonghoon Oh, Rachel S. Johnson, Julianne D. Schmidt, and Robert C. Lynall
among musculoskeletal-injured and concussed patients demonstrates greater movement and cognitive deficits than healthy participants during gait and balancing dual-task conditions. 13 – 15 , 22 However, limited research has thoroughly explored how a dual-task paradigm may influence kinematic and kinetic
Maggie Evans, Kelly J. Rohan, Jonah Meyerhoff, Richard J. Norton, and Jeremy S. Sibold
negative symptoms and neurocognitive deficits in psychotic disorders ( Firth et al., 2015 ). The causal nature of the physical activity/mood relationship has also been explored using a voluntary exercise cessation paradigm in which physically active individuals cease their exercise routines. In Weinstein
Justin A. Haegele and Samuel Russell Hodge
There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.