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The Authentic Coaching Model: A Grounded Theory of Coaching

Steven C. Barnson

The purpose of this research was to: (a) describe the coaching process using language that is meaningful for practicing coaches; (b) explain how different coaches maneuver through the process of coaching; and (c) probe the paradoxical nature of the coaching process. Data gathered over a 6-month period with eight high school team sport coaches in the United States representing six different sport contexts, revealed three foundational paradoxes. Based on the results, coaching is best viewed as the convergence of three paradoxical forces: the paradox of authenticity, the paradox of purpose, and the pendulum paradox. The paper closes with the suggested definition of sports coaching: Coaching is the process of utilizing an intentional philosophic approach to simultaneously teach, motivate, and organize an athlete to attain higher levels of success over time.

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Context Matters: The Importance of Physical Activity Domains for Public Health

Tyler D. Quinn and Bethany Barone Gibbs

contrast, the evidence is less consistent for other domains (Figure  1 ). Of particular interest, a growing number of research studies over the past 5 years support a phenomenon known as the “physical activity health paradox.” This research has observed and attempted to explain the paradoxically opposing

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The Socioeconomic Paradox of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Europe

Antonio Moreno-Llamas, Jesús García-Mayor, and Ernesto De la Cruz-Sánchez

, alcohol use, or low diet quality), which contributes to social inequalities of ill health. 12 However, paradoxically, other studies have shown that sitting time might inversely describe this socioeconomic gradient, that is, the higher the SES, the higher the sedentary time. 19 , 20 Higher levels of

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Conscious Processing and the Process Goal Paradox

Richard Mullen and Lew Hardy

The three experiments reported here examined the process goal paradox, which has emerged from the literature on goal setting and conscious processing. We predicted that skilled but anxious performers who adopted a global movement focus using holistic process goals would outperform those who used part-oriented process goals. In line with the conscious processing hypothesis, we also predicted that performers using part process goals would experience performance impairment in test compared with baseline conditions. In all three experiments, participants performed motor tasks in baseline and test conditions. Cognitive state anxiety increased in all of the test conditions. The results confirmed our first prediction; however, we failed to find unequivocal evidence to support our second prediction. The consistent pattern of the results lends support to the suggestion that, for skilled athletes who perform under competitive pressure, using a holistic process goal that focuses attention on global aspects of a motor skill is a more effective attentional focus strategy than using a part process goal.

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Using Traditional and Paradoxical Imagery Interventions with Reactant Intramural Athletes

Jennifer E. Carter and Anita E. Kelly

This study explored the moderating effect of psychological reactance on the success of traditional and paradoxical mental imagery treatments that were aimed at reducing anxiety in athletes. Intramural college basketball players (N = 73) were recruited through advertisements for a free-throw contest, and their anxiety and free-throw performance were measured following treatment in one of three groups: confidence imagery, paradoxical imagery, or control. As predicted, in the paradoxical condition, high-reactant athletes reported having significantly lower somatic state anxiety and significantly higher state self-confidence than did low-reactant athletes. In contrast, high- and low-reactant athletes did not differ in their anxiety scores in both the confidence imagery and control conditions. Results suggested that reactance does moderate the effect of the success of traditional and paradoxical imagery treatments for reducing athletes’ anxiety.

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On the Use of Paradoxical Interventions in Counseling and Coaching in Sport

Michael Bar-Eli

This article discusses the use of paradoxical interventions in counseling and coaching in sport. The concepts of first- and second-order change processes are clarified. The logic of the paradox is described in detail. Several examples of paradoxical intervention in sport are presented, together with guidelines for its use. Finally, the possibilities of integrating paradoxical thought processes into educational sport psychology are discussed.

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Fasting and Feasting: Paradoxes of the Sport Ethic

David Johns

In this study the sociological and philosophical concept of the sport ethic has been utilized to explain the meaning of extreme and overconforming athlete behaviors which manifest themselves as athletic preparation. The study discloses, through the life history of a rhythmic gymnast, how the meanings and values of what it means to be an athlete were transmitted through the day-to-day discourse of athlete practice. By focusing on the dietary preoccupations of gymnasts involved in international competition, it was possible to demonstrate how modern sport preparation is not only distorted but also paradoxical, serving to push the body beyond its limits while insisting on its preservation.

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Paradoxical Practices of Gender in Sport-Related Organizations

Inge Claringbould and Annelies Knoppers

The gender ratio of those in positions of leadership continues to be skewed toward a male majority. The purpose of this study is to explore how practices of gender may contribute to the lack of significant change in this skewed ratio in (sport) organizations. We situate our study within Martin’s (2003, 2006) notion of practices of gender. We conducted interviews with 15 sport journalists and 32 members of boards of governance of sport organizations to investigate how the skewed gender ratio was maintained and challenged by paradoxical practices of gender. The results show that practices of gender neutrality, normalcy and passivity strengthened and maintained the current gender skewness. We also give examples of disruptive practices that contributed to the undoing of gender in these organizations.

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The Talent Paradox: Disenchantment, Disengagement, and Damage Through Sport

William V. Massey and Meredith A. Whitley

-resourced communities in the United States. The findings center on the concept of a talent paradox. Eitzen ( 2016 ) describes the paradoxical nature of sport as having both “magical qualities” as well as “troublesome qualities.” In this study, we conceptualize the talent paradox as one in which high levels of talent

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Exercise Makes People Feel Better but People are Inactive: Paradox or Artifact?

Susan H. Backhouse, Panteleimon Ekkekakis, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Andrew Foskett, and Clyde Williams

The exercise psychology literature includes an intriguing, albeit not frequently discussed, paradox by juxtaposing two conclusions: (a) that exercise makes most people feel better and (b) that most people are physically inactive or inadequately active. In this article, we propose that this might be an artifact rather than a paradox. Specifically, we question the generality of the conclusion that exercise makes people feel better by proposing that (a) occasional findings of negative affective changes tend to be discounted, (b) potentially relevant negative affective states are not always measured, (c) examining changes from pre- to postexercise could miss negative changes during exercise, and (d) analyzing changes only at the level of group aggregates might conceal divergent patterns at the level of individuals or subgroups. Data from a study of 12 men participating in a 90-min walk–run protocol designed to simulate the demands of sports games (e.g., soccer) are used to illustrate these points.