Wheelchair curling debuted at the 2006 Paralympic Games. Competing athletes utilize the same stones and ice sheets as Olympic curlers, although sweeping (ie, using a broom to control the stone’s trajectory) is omitted and the stone must be pushed from a stationary wheelchair using a delivery stick
Brock Laschowski, Naser Mehrabi and John McPhee
Jeffrey Martin, Mario Vassallo, Jacklyn Carrico and Ellen Armstrong
, 2017 ). In particular, elite sport competitions such as the Paralympics and Olympics are considered ideal settings to observe intense emotional expressions associated with both success (e.g., joy) and failure (e.g., anguish) because winning at the Paralympics and Olympics is considered the pinnacle of
Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S. Rosén, Olga Tarassova and Anton Arndt
to an increase in pelvis and trunk rotation and a higher power output. 1 Kayaking performed by people with physical impairment is called para-kayak and was introduced as an international competitive sport in 2009 and debuted in the Paralympic Games in 2016. In Paralympic sports, athletes compete in
Irineu Loturco, Lucas A. Pereira, Ciro Winckler, Weverton L. Santos, Ronaldo Kobal and Michael McGuigan
populations. 6 This could provide practitioners with more accurate information regarding athletes who regularly train and compete at extremely low velocities (ie, bar velocity at 1RM). 6 , 10 Furthermore, given the lack of studies involving Paralympic athletes at all levels and disciplines, it would also be
Edited by Simon Darcy, Stephen Frawley, and Daryl Adair. Published 2017 by Palgrave Macmillan , London, UK. $58.16 , available in eBook for $54.99 . 302 pp., ISBN: 978-1-137-43520-0 Managing the Paralympics , edited by Simon Darcy, Stephen Frawley, and Daryl Adair, brings together the work of
Cathy McKay, Jung Yeon Park and Martin Block
, 2008 ; Xafopoulos, Kudlacek, & Evaggelinou, 2009 ). Research has tended to compare contact settings as opposed to addressing contact theory ( Slininger et al., 2000 ). Of the aforementioned research referencing contact theory, four studies are specific to Paralympic School Day (PSD) and have focused
Daniel P. Joaquim, Claudia R. Juzwiak and Ciro Winckler
dietary interventions, minimizing nutritional deficiencies ( Thomas et al., 2016 ). In this way, the aim of this study was to assess the diet quality of Brazilian Paralympic sprinters, the variations of quality between days and of the energy intake in relation to the intensity of the exercise performed in
Scott Douglas, William R. Falcão and Gordon A. Bloom
pathways of Paralympic coaches have never been divided into periodic stages, some findings have identified similarities in the career development and learning pathways of able-bodied coaches of athletes with disabilities. For example, Cregan, Bloom, and Reid ( 2007 ) interviewed six Paralympic swim coaches
Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles D. Warrington
variations within and between subject groups imply that the stress response to TL, competition, and additional external stressors is highly individual. 10 Despite the shift in focus from rehabilitative participation to elite-level sport, research into Paralympic sport has lagged behind the large body of
Floor Morriën, Matthew J. D. Taylor and Florentina J. Hettinga
To provide an overview of biomechanical studies in Paralympic research and their relevance for performance in Paralympic sports.
The search terms paralympic biomechanics, paralympic sport performance, paralympic athlete performance, and paralympic athlete were entered into the electronic database PubMed.
Thirty-four studies were found. Biomechanical studies in Paralympics mainly contributed to performance enhancement by technical optimization (n = 32) and/or injury prevention (n = 6). In addition, biomechanics was found to be important in understanding activity limitation caused by various impairments, which is relevant for evidence-based classification in Paralympic sports (n = 6). Distinctions were made between biomechanical studies in sitting (41%), standing (38%), and swimming athletes (21%). In sitting athletes, mostly kinematics and kinetics in wheelchair propulsion were studied, mainly in athletes with spinal-cord injuries. In addition, kinetics and/or kinematics in wheelchair basketball, seated discus throwing, stationary shot-putting, hand-cycling, sit-skiing, and ice sledge hockey received attention. In standing sports, primarily kinematics of athletes with amputations performing jump sports and running and the optimization of prosthetic devices were investigated. No studies were reported on other standing sports. In swimming, mainly kick rate and resistance training were studied.
Biomechanical research is important for performance by gaining insight into technical optimization, injury prevention, and evidence-based classification in Paralympic sports. In future studies it is advised to also include physiological and biomechanical measures, allowing the assessment of the capability of the human body, as well as the resulting movement.