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Tiago Peçanha, Marcelle Paula-Ribeiro, Edson Campana-Rezende, Rhenan Bartels, João Carlos Bouzas Marins and Jorge Roberto Perrout de Lima

It has been shown that water intake (WI) improves postexercise parasympathetic recovery after moderateintensity exercise session. However, the potential cardiovascular benefit promoted by WI has not been investigated after high-intensity exercise.

Purpose:

To assess the effects of WI on post high-intensity parasympathetic recovery.

Methods:

Twelve recreationally active young men participated in the study (22 ± 1.4 years, 24.1 ± 1.6 kg.m−2). The experimental protocol consisted of two visits to the laboratory. Each visit consisted in the completion of a 30-min high-intensity [~80% of maximal heart rate (HR)] cycle ergometer aerobic session performing randomly the WI or control (CON, no water consumption) intervention at the end of the exercise. HR and RR intervals (RRi) were continuously recorded by a heart rate monitor before, during and after the exercise. Differences in HR recovery [e.g., absolute heart rate decrement after 1 min of recovery (HRR60s) and time-constant of the first order exponential fitting curve of the HRR (HRRτ)] and in postexercise vagalrelated heart rate variability (HRV) indexes (rMSSD30s, rMSSD, pNN50, SD1 and HF) were calculated and compared for WI and CON.

Results:

A similar HR recovery and an increased postexercise HRV [SD1 = 9.4 ± 5.9 vs. 6.0 ± 3.9 millisecond, HF(ln) = 3.6 ± 1.4 vs. 2.4 ± 1.3 millisecond2, for WI and CON, respectively; p < .05] was observed in WI compared with CON.

Conclusion:

The results suggest that WI accelerates the postexercise parasympathetic reactivation after high-intensity exercise. Such outcome reveals an important cardioprotective effect of WI.

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Jamie Douglas, Daniel J. Plews, Phil J. Handcock and Nancy J. Rehrer

Purpose:

To determine whether a facilitated recovery via cold-water immersion (CWI) after simulated rugby sevens would influence parasympathetic reactivation and repeated-sprint (RS) performance across 6 matches in a 2-d tournament.

Methods:

Ten male team-sport athletes completed 6 rugby sevens match simulations over 2 d with either postmatch passive recovery (PAS) or CWI in a randomized crossover design. Parasympathetic reactivation was determined via the natural logarithm of the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent R-R intervals (ln rMSSD). RS performance was calculated as time taken (s) to complete 6 × 30-m sprints within the first half of each match.

Results:

There were large increases in postintervention ln rMSSD between CWI and PAS after all matches (ES 90% CL: +1.13; ±0.21). Average heart rate (HR) during the RS performance task (HRAverage RS) was impaired from baseline from match 3 onward for both conditions. However, HRAverage RS was higher with CWI than with PAS (ES 90% CL: 0.58; ±0.58). Peak HR during the RS performance task (HRPeak RS) was similarly impaired from baseline for match 3 onward during PAS and for match 4 onward with CWI. HRPeak RS was very likely higher with CWI than with PAS (ES 90% CL: +0.80; ±0.56). No effects of match or condition were observed for RS performance, although there were moderate correlations between the changes in HRAverage RS (r 90% CL: –0.33; ±0.14), HRPeak RS (r 90% CL: –0.38; ±0.13), and RS performance.

Conclusion:

CWI facilitated cardiac parasympathetic reactivation after a simulated rugby sevens match. The decline in average and peak HR across matches was partially attenuated by CWI. This decline was moderately correlated with a reduction in RS performance.

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Ana C. Holt, Daniel J. Plews, Katherine T. Oberlin-Brown, Fabrice Merien and Andrew E. Kilding

, such as neuromuscular recovery, 9 muscle metabolite, and cortisol clearance, 10 , 11 cardiac parasympathetic reactivation, 2 and performance recovery. 9 The suppression of cardiac parasympathetic activity with exercise is well documented, with a subsequent reactivation of parasympathetic activity

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Adam Grainger, Paul Comfort and Shane Heffernan

. 28 , 29 The administration of CWI after rugby is believed to improve perception of WB through reduction in nerve conduction velocity associated with improved parasympathetic reactivation. 30 This effect is hypothesized to be due to low temperatures penetrating the skin and subcutaneous tissue to

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Nick Dobbin, Jamie Highton, Samantha L. Moss and Craig Twist

HRR was similar to Buchheit et al 25 after 10 weeks of high-intensity training in adolescent soccer players (60 [12], cf. 76 [14] b·min −1 ). Such findings indicate that both interventions induced an increase in parasympathetic reactivation and sympathetic withdrawal at exercise cessation. 25

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Fernando S. Lobo, Andreia C.C. Queiroz, Natan D. Silva Junior, Fabio L. Medina, Luiz A.R. Costa, Tais Tinucci and Claudia L.M. Forjaz

– 18 . PubMed ID: 22872658 doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2011.058065 22872658 10.1113/expphysiol.2011.058065 14. Pecanha T , Paula-Ribeiro M , Campana-Rezende E , Bartels R , Marins JC , de Lima JR . Water intake accelerates parasympathetic reactivation after high-intensity exercise . Int J

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Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann

in acceleration of parasympathetic reactivation compared with active recovery after a constant-velocity exhaustive test in athletes participating in intermittent sports (eg, football, basketball). 27 The conflicting results may be attributed to differences in training status, exercise mode (eg

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Mohamed S. Fessi, Fayçal Farhat, Alexandre Dellal, James J. Malone and Wassim Moalla

Med . 2014 ; 35 : 489 – 493 . PubMed 24165959 15. Dellal A , Casamichan D , Castellano J , Haddad M , Moalla W , Chamari K . Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation in elite soccer players during different types of traditional high-intensity training exercise modes and specific tests

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Susan Y. Kwiecien, Malachy P. McHugh, Stuart Goodall, Kirsty M. Hicks, Angus M. Hunter and Glyn Howatson

different water immersion temperatures on post exercise parasympathetic reactivation . PLoS ONE . 2014 ; 9 : e113730 . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113730 10.1371/journal.pone.0113730 24. Dong J . The role of heart rate variability in sports physiology (review) . Exp Ther Med . 2016 ; 11 : 1531 – 1536

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Mathieu Lacome, Ben Simpson, Nick Broad and Martin Buchheit

– 656 . PubMed ID: 26660758 doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0446-0 10.1007/s40279-015-0446-0 26660758 25. Buchheit M , Laursen PB , Al Haddad H , Ahmaidi S . Exercise-induced plasma volume expansion and post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation . Eur J Appl Physiol . 2009 ; 105 ( 3 ): 471 – 481