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Jill A. Nolan, Christa L. Lilly, Janie M. Leary, Wesley Meeteer, Hugh D. Campbell, Geri A. Dino, and Leslie Cotrell

Background:

Parent support for child physical activity is a consistent predictor of increased childhood activity. Little is known about factors that prevent or facilitate support. The purpose of this research was to identify barriers to parent support for child physical activity in Appalachian parents.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study assessed parents whose children participated in Coronary Artery Risk Detection in Appalachian Communities (CARDIAC) screenings in a rural Appalachian state. Barriers to parental support for physical activity, demographics, geographic location, and parental support for activity were measured.

Results:

A total of 475 parents completed surveys. The majority were mothers (86.7%), parents of kindergarteners (49.5%), white (89.3%), and living in a nonrural area (70.5%). Community-level factors were most frequently cited as barriers, particularly those related to the built environment. Rural and low-income parents reported significantly higher barriers. Community, interpersonal, and intrapersonal barriers were negatively correlated with parent support for child physical activity. Parents of girls reported a higher percentage of barriers related to safety.

Conclusions:

Reported barriers in this sample differed from those reported elsewhere (Davison, 2009). Specific groups such as low-income and rural parents should be targeted in intervention efforts. Future research should explore gender differences in reported barriers to determine the influence of cultural stereotypes.

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Krista Schroeder, Martha Y. Kubik, Jiwoo Lee, John R. Sirard, and Jayne A. Fulkerson

studied. The aim of this study was to simultaneously compare the association of self-efficacy for PA, parent support for PA, and peer support for PA with moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time among 8- to 12-year-old children with a BMI ≥75th percentile. Children in the top quartile of the

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Camilla J. Knight

al. ( 2017 ) that sought to examine the impact of a full (seminar and sport-parent guide) and partial (just the sport-parent guide) intervention on parentssupport, warmth, pressure, and conflict and subsequent psychosocial outcomes for children. Parents from youth soccer teams in the United States

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Simon J. Sebire, Anne M. Haase, Alan A. Montgomery, Jade McNeill, and Russ Jago

Background:

The current study investigated cross-sectional associations between maternal and paternal logistic and modeling physical activity support and the self-efficacy, self-esteem, and physical activity intentions of 11- to 12-year-old girls.

Methods:

210 girls reported perceptions of maternal and paternal logistic and modeling support and their self-efficacy, self-esteem and intention to be physically active. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models.

Results:

Maternal logistic support was positively associated with participants’ self-esteem, physical activity self-efficacy, and intention to be active. Maternal modeling was positively associated with self-efficacy. Paternal modeling was positively associated with self-esteem and selfefficacy but there was no evidence that paternal logistic support was associated with the psychosocial variables.

Conclusions:

Activity-related parenting practices were associated with psychosocial correlates of physical activity among adolescent girls. Logistic support from mothers, rather than modeling support or paternal support may be a particularly important target when designing interventions aimed at preventing the age-related decline in physical activity among girls.

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Marsha Dowda, Ruth P. Saunders, Natalie Colabianchi, Rod K. Dishman, Kerry L. McIver, and Russell R. Pate

PA behavior 9 and provide a useful framework for conceptualizing influences on PA. 10 Studies 8 , 11 , 12 and reviews 10 , 13 identified multiple factors associated with children’s PA, including home factors (opportunities at home and PA equipment), psychosocial factors (parent support), and

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Ruth P. Saunders, Rod K. Dishman, Marsha Dowda, and Russell R. Pate

occurs between elementary and middle school. After adjustment for gender and maturity differences, the authors observed a lower decline in PA among children who maintained a higher level of self-efficacy and perceived that their parents supported their PA. PA also declined less for students who

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Samantha McDonald, Marsha Dowda, Natalie Colabianchi, Dwayne Porter, Rod K. Dishman, and Russell R. Pate

Previous research suggests the neighborhood environment may be an important influence on children’s physical activity (PA) behaviors; however, findings are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to further understand the relationship between perceptions of the neighborhood environment and children’s afterschool moderate-to-vigorous PA. Utilizing a structural equation modeling technique, we tested a conceptual model linking parent and child perceptions of the neighborhood environment, parent support for PA, and child outdoor PA with children’s afterschool moderate-to vigorous PA. We found that child perception of the neighborhood environment and outdoor PA were positively associated with afterschool moderate-to-vigorous PA. In addition, parent support for PA positively influenced children’s outdoor PA. The neighborhood environment and outdoor activity appear to play an influential role on children’s afterschool PA behaviors.

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Jeanne Barcelona, Erin Centeio, Paige Arvidson, and Kowsar Hijazi

Purpose: This exploratory study evaluated how youth healthy eating (HE) and physical activity (PA) behaviors could be influenced by a whole-of-school program, which was transformed to a virtual setting at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors investigated how students experienced programming and the role of students’ perceptions of parental support in their self-reported engagement in HE and PA. Methods: PA and HE curricula were provided across 15 schools over 12 weeks. Students (N = 879, M age = 12.12 years, 63% female) completed a survey evaluating the value and perceptions around programmatic aspects as well as their self-reported engagement in HE and PA. Results: Multiple regression analyses revealed positive relationships between parental support for PA and student engagement, as well as positive relationships between students’ self-efficacy and HE behaviors. Conclusion: Findings indicate that students utilized virtual HE and PA programming and that parent support helped to facilitate engagement in PA and HE behaviors beyond the school setting.

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Noe C. Crespo, Kirsten Corder, Simon Marshall, Gregory J. Norman, Kevin Patrick, James F. Sallis, and John P. Elder

Background:

Girls are less physically active than boys, yet no single study has examined the factors that may explain gender differences in children’s physical activity (PA).

Methods:

This study was a cross-sectional analysis of data from 116 caregivers and their children aged 5–8 years who participated in the MOVE study. Caregivers reported various factors that may relate to children’s PA (eg, encouragement for child PA and PA equipment at home). Child PA was measured by 7-day accelerometry. Linear regression tested for the variance in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) explained by gender and several variables. Gender and ethnicity interactions were examined.

Results:

Caregivers were mostly female (97%), mean age 38 ± 6 years, mean BMI 28 ± 6 (kg/m2). Child’s mean age was 8.1 ± 0.7, 54% were female and 40% were overweight/obese. Girls were less physically active than boys (54.1 ± 19.7 vs. 65.2 ± 28.0 daily minutes of MVPA, respectively). Among girls, more days of PE/week was associated with greater MVPA. Among boys, greater parent support for PA, greater parent modeling for PA, and greater number of PA equipment in the home were associated with greater MVPA.

Conclusions:

This study supports that boys and girls have different correlates for MVPA, which may partly explain gender differences in PA.

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Alexandra Stribing, Adam Pennell, Emily N. Gilbert, Lauren J. Lieberman, and Ali Brian

Individuals with visual impairments (VI) trend toward lower motor competence when compared with peers without VI. Various forms of perception often affects motor competence. Thus, it is important to explore factors that influence forms of perception and their differential effects on motor competence for those with VI. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to explore and describe the differential effects of age, gender, and degree of vision on self-perceptions, parents’ perceptions, metaperceptions, and locomotor skills, and to examine potential associations among all variables with actual locomotor competence for adolescents with VI. Adolescents with VI completed two questionnaires and the Test of Gross Motor Development-Third Edition. Parents completed a parent perception questionnaire. Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis H analyses showed no differential effects for gender or age on any dependent measures. Degree of vision affected locomotor skills, but not any other factor. Spearman rho correlations showed significant associations among locomotor and self-perceptions, degree of vision and locomotor, and metaperceptions with parents’ perceptions. Adolescents reported relatively high self-perceptions and metaperceptions; however, their actual locomotor competence and parents’ perceptions were relatively low. Findings may help situate future intervention strategies targeting parents supporting their children’s locomotor skills through self-perceptions.