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Byungmo Ku, Megan MacDonald, Bridget Hatfield, and Kathy Gunter

clearly explained the pathways between parental PA orientations and parental support and their child’s PA at home. Parental PA orientation is an umbrella term, referring to the perspectives of parents toward their own and their children’s PA behaviors, such as parental PA, parental PA enjoyment, parental

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Nico W. VanYperen

This study of 65 highly skilled young male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years) employed a 7-month longitudinal design to examine the causal relationship between performance level and interpersonal stress within the team. Particular attention was paid to the moderating effect of parental support. No evidence was found that interpersonal stress within the team was an important determinant of performance level. Rather, a low performance level leads to negative feelings about the social climate within the team. But this is only true under specific circumstances (i.e., when there is a perceived lack of parental support). The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

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Valerie Carson

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parental support and children’s physical activity outside of child care, and whether children’s age or sex moderated the associations.

Methods:

Results are based on 93 children aged 19 to 60 months at baseline from 8 child care centers across Alberta, Canada. Parental support (ie, transportation, coactivity, watching, encouragement, and informing) and children’s physical activity outside of child care were measured with a parental questionnaire at baseline (October/November 2013) and follow-up (May/June 2014).

Results:

Every additional unit increase in parental support was significantly associated with 48.5 minutes/week [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 29.3–67.6] and 52.2 (95% CI: 32.0–72.3) minutes/week higher parental reported children’s physical activity outside of child care at baseline and follow-up, respectively. A 1-unit increase in parental support from baseline to follow-up was significantly associated with a 24.8 (95% CI: 2.8–46.8) minutes/week increase in parental reported children’s physical activity outside of child care. Children’s age was a moderator at baseline only.

Conclusions:

Parental support was positively associated with children’s physical activity across all analyses. Parental support may be an important correlate to target in future interventions aiming to promote physical activity in the early years.

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Mihye Jeong, So-Yeun Kim, and Euikyung Lee

The purpose of this study was to examine validity and reliability evidence of a questionnaire regarding parents’ beliefs and intentions toward supporting physical activity (PA) participation of their children with disabilities (CWD). A total of 220 parents of CWD in South Korea completed a questionnaire that was developed using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that behavioral, control, and normative beliefs accounted for 31.13%, 20.45%, and 19.63% of the total variance of the intention, respectively. Reliability of entire scale was .85 using Cronbach’s alpha. Reliabilities of the 3 beliefs were .86, .82, and .87, respectively. Standard multiple-regression analysis indicated that behavioral and normative beliefs significantly predicted parents’ intention, p < .01. Intention was a significant predictor of parents’ behavior, p < .01. The results of this study indicated that the TPB can be useful to examine parental support for PA participation of their CWD.

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Erica Y. Lau, Daheia J. Barr-Anderson, Marsha Dowda, Melinda Forthofer, Ruth P. Saunders, and Russell R. Pate

This study examined associations of various elements of the home environment with after-school physical activity and sedentary time in 671 6th-grade children (Mage = 11.49 ± 0.5 years). Children’s after-school total physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and sedentary time were measured by accelerometry. Parents completed surveys assessing elements of the home social and physical environment. Mixed-model regression analyses were used to examine the associations between each element of the home environment and children’s after-school physical activity and sedentary time. Availability of home physical activity resources was associated positively with after-school total physical activity and negatively with after-school sedentary time in boys. Parental support was associated positively with after-school total physical activity and MVPA and negatively with after-school sedentary time in girls. The home physical environment was associated with boys’ after-school physical activity and sedentary time, whereas the home social environment was associated with girls’ after-school physical activity and sedentary time.

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Lauren K. Tristani, Rebecca Bassett-Gunter, and Sunita Tanna

Parents are an important source of support for facilitating physical activity in children and youth with disabilities (CYWD). Approximately 70% of parents report using the Internet to search for information regarding their children’s health. This study examined the theoretical content of physical activity information contained on publicly available Web sites targeting parents of CYWD. Web sites were amassed using Google, a combination of various search terms, and predetermined inclusion criteria. The Web sites were coded and analyzed using the content-analysis approach to the theory of specified persuasive educational communication. Half of the total Web site content targeted knowledge-based information and messages concerning outcome expectancies. Web sites infrequently included messages concerning self-regulation. Furthermore, the majority of the Web sites were accumulated using the generic term disability. This research highlights the gaps between theory and practice, emphasizing the need for better knowledge-translation practices.

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Justin B. Moore, Michael W. Beets, Sara F. Morris, and Mary Bea Kolbe

Background:

Most youth fail to achieve 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily while engaging in excessive amounts of sedentary behaviors. The objective of this investigation was to identify modifiable factors associated with meeting MVPA recommendations or engaging in greater than 55% of observed time sedentary.

Methods:

Youth (N = 1005, 10.5 yrs, 52% girls) wore accelerometers with daily minutes of MVPA (≥ 2296 counts·min−1) classified as ≥ 60mins/d vs. < 60min/d of MVPA. Sedentary behavior (< 100 counts·min−1) was classified as < 55% or ≥ 55% of total wear-time. Two-level random effects logit survival models for repeated events (days of monitoring) examined the association of psychosocial self-report measures and demographic characteristics to meeting the MVPA recommendation and spending ≥ 55% of time sedentary.

Results:

Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Sundays were associated with a decreased likelihood of meeting MVPA recommendations relative to Mondays. Wednesday thru Sunday were associated with a decreased likelihood of spending ≥ 55% of time sedentary. Being a boy, receiving transportation, and fewer reported barriers to physical activity were associated with meeting MVPA recommendations.

Conclusions:

Relatively few youth are engaging in recommended levels of physical activity. Provision of transportation and reduction of barriers to physical activity are relevant targets for physical activity promotion.

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Jeanne Barcelona, Erin Centeio, Paige Arvidson, and Kowsar Hijazi

-of-school program that was transformed to a virtual setting at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, we investigated how students experienced programming, exploring the relationship between students’ perceptions of parental support, enjoyment, and value in virtual programming as well as their self

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Lauren A. Gardner, Christopher A. Magee, and Stewart A. Vella

supported by other research linking perceptions of parental support, quality coach–athlete relationships, peer acceptance, and quality friendships with commitment and continued participation. 11 , 19 – 21 We, therefore, hypothesize that age, sex, competition level, perceived competence, parental support

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MinKyoung Song, Robert F. Corwyn, Robert H. Bradley, and Julie C. Lumeng

parenting behaviors (parental support of physical activity, parents’ own physical activity, and monitoring) with temperament activity level in predicting MVPA. We hypothesized that any association between lower temperament activity level and lower MVPA could be modified by parenting behaviors supportive of