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Courtney L. Pollock, Michael A. Hunt, Taian M. Vieira, Alessio Gallina, Tanya D. Ivanova and S. Jayne Garland

, 2011 ; Vieira, Loram, Muceli, Merletti, & Farina, 2012 ). Human gastrocnemius muscles have been described as being composed of approximately 50% fast-twitch fibers, whereas the soleus muscle is composed of 70–100% slow-twitch fibers ( Johnson, Polgar, Weightman, & Appleton, 1973 ). Paresis following

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Stella Maris Michaelsen, Eliane C. Magdalon and Mindy F. Levin

Decreased dexterity in chronic stroke survivors results in diminished hand use and impacts quality of life. We studied reach-and-grasp coordination and aperture scaling during reach to grasp using different grasp types and object sizes (33–55mm). Chronic stroke survivors with hand paresis and controls grasped cylinders with the whole hand or fingertips. Three stroke subjects with more severe hand paresis had disrupted reach/grasp coordination and used compensatory strategies for arm transport and/or grasping. Nine stroke subjects with less severe paresis scaled aperture to cylinder diameter (p < .001) but had slower movements, used excessive trunk movement, and had prolonged deceleration times. Relative time to maximal grip aperture (TMA) occurred earlier in stroke subjects and in both groups when grasping the small cylinder (p < .002). Despite deficits in reach and grasp, chronic stroke survivors with mild to moderate hand paresis may retain grip aperture scaling to object size for different grasp types.

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Jumpei Mizuno, Masashi Kawamura and Minoru Hoshiyama

position between a patient and therapist is important to show motor performance by the therapist, related to the brain lesion of the patient. Therapists often select their relative position to the patients depending on the side of paresis or spatial neglect in the patients. However, it is not clear that

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Carolee Winstein

–response trial ( Lang et al., 2016 ). Contrary to expectations, the overall treatment effects were small; there was no evidence of a dose–response effect of task-specific training on functional capacity in people with long-standing stroke-induced upper-limb paresis. Of note, the self-reported exertion level was

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Isabel Mayer, Matthias W. Hoppe, Jürgen Freiwald, Rafael Heiss, Martin Engelhardt, Casper Grim, Christoph Lutter, Moritz Huettel, Raimund Forst and Thilo Hotfiel

and tendon transfer for patients suffering from spastic paresis: a review and some new observations . J Electromyogr Kinesiol . 2007 ; 17 ( 6 ): 644 – 656 . PubMed ID: 17369052 doi: 10.1016/j.jelekin.2007.02.002 17369052 55. Kubo K , Kawakami Y , Fukunaga T . Influence of elastic

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Yuko Kuramatsu, Yuji Yamamoto and Shin-Ichi Izumi

reflex cannot be perceptually separated from voluntary movements . The Journal of Physiology, 592 , 141 – 152 . doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2013.260588 10.1113/jphysiol.2013.260588 Gracies , J.M. ( 2005 ). Pathophysiology of spastic paresis. II: Emergence of muscle overactivity . Muscle & Nerve, 31

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Annika Kruse, Christian Schranz, Martin Svehlik and Markus Tilp

/II) 8/3 11/0 Paresis (hemiparetic/diparetic) 3/8 5/6 Abbreviations: GMFCS, Gross Motor Function Classification System; HICT, high-intensity circuit training; PRT, progressive resistance training. Note: Data are presented as mean (SD). Study Design Twenty-two children completed 4 assessments (Figure  1