, & Sagas, 2011 ; Matzler et al., 2008 ), and participant sport ( Du, Jordan, & Funk, 2015 ; Kaplanidou & Gibson, 2010 ). As with mainstream marketing, sport management researchers most frequently use the expectancy-disconfirmation framework to examine consumer satisfaction ( Kim et al., 2014 ). Under the
Bradley J. Baker, Jeremy S. Jordan, and Daniel C. Funk
This study develops a decision-making process model for participant sport consumption that integrates self-participant image congruency (SIC), attitude, and intentions. SIC is the degree of congruency between one's self-concept and her/his participant's stereotypical image in a given context of sport or exercise involvement. Attitudes toward participation refer to an overall utilitarian evaluation of the behavior whereas intentions reflect decisions (Fishbein, 1980). A structural model is developed that incorporates SIC (as image-based evaluations) and attitudes (as utilitarian evaluations) as antecedents of intentions (as decisions) using LISREL8. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that (a) both SIC and attitudes influence one's decision to initiate sport or exercise participation in the consumption context but attitudes have greater impact than SIC, and (b) both actual and ideal self-concepts are relevant in image-based decision-making processes.
James Du, Jeremy S. Jordan, and Daniel C. Funk
The current study was an investigation of the role of personal performance, an internal assessment of timegoal achievement, on participants’ event satisfaction that would contribute to positive outcomes. Multiattribute online surveys were distributed to participants at two distance participant sport events held in the Southeast and Northeast United States (N = 3,476 and 4,828). A multidimensional Participant Sport Event Attribute and Service Delivery (PSEASD) scale was developed to capture a spectrum of service touch points encountered during the event experience. Empirical results using covariance-based structural equation modeling was used to test and support a proposed model revealing that personal performance was a stronger positive determinant of event satisfaction than traditional service quality and perceived value. A significant negative interaction effect between service quality and personal performance was also revealed. Collectively, the model explained 41% of variance in event satisfaction, and 26% of behavioral intentions. Based on the findings, we suggest managing personal performance expectations is important to holistically manage and promote overall event satisfaction in a participant sport event setting.
Joon-Ho Kang, Richard P. Bagozzi, and Jawang Oh
Although emotion has occasionally been examined as a dependent variable or outcome of physical activity involvement, it rarely has been studied as an antecedent. This study examines the role of emotion in decision-making processes for participant sport consumption. A structural model is proposed to integrate emotions with self-image congruency and attitudes as antecedents of the decision to initiate physical activity in the consumption context. Context effects were investigated by two scenarios: (1) joining a private health club and (2) skiing in an indoor ski resort. A total of 199 persons responded, and structural equation models were examined. The results indicate that emotion mediates the influence of attitudes and self-image congruency on the decision to join the club and resort. The pattern of the relationships among utilitarian, self-based, and emotive evaluations depends on the sport consumption context. Discussion of theoretical and practical issues is presented and directions for future research are suggested.
Heather Kennedy, Bradley J. Baker, Jeremy S. Jordan, and Daniel C. Funk
from activity participation. Finally, lifestyle value represents the importance of the activity within an individual’s daily life. The link between psychological involvement and desirable attitudinal and behavioral outcomes is well established. Participants’ sport involvement levels are positively
Richard J. Buning and Heather Gibson
Using the event-travel-career concept, this study examined the trajectory of active-sport-event travel careers through stages of development and the corresponding factors and dimensions perceived to influence career progression in the sport of cycling. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 amateur cyclists engaged in lifestyles geared toward active event travel. A grounded theory approach revealed that active event travel careers evolve through a complex progression of 9 core themes and related subthemes. The core themes included the first event, starting out, motivation, temporal, travel style, destination criteria, event types, spatial, and later in life. On the basis of these findings, a 6-stage active-sport-event travel career model is proposed consisting of initiation, introduction, expansion, peak threshold, maintenance, and maturity. From this model, theoretical contributions, suggestions for future research, and practical implications for sport tourism and event management are discussed.
Damien Whitburn, Adam Karg, and Paul Turner
Relationship marketing through digital forms of integrated marketing communications can provide sport organizations with a range of positive outcomes. Given decreasing participation, membership and funding pressures, sport organizations need to engage with current and prospective consumers to alleviate these concerns. Drawing on existing research in the digital communications setting, a framework illustrating the end to end integrated marketing communications function as implemented by governing bodies as a form of not-for-profit sporting organizations is presented and tested. Satisfaction with integrated marketing communications was shown to have a direct effect on relationship quality and behavioral intentions, including revenue raising, increasing participation, raising awareness, and enhancing public perception providing practical and theoretical benefits.
* Fedja Fidahic * 7 2011 25 4 305 313 10.1123/jsm.25.4.305 Emotions as Antecedents of Participant Sport Consumption Decisions: A Model Integrating Emotive, Self-Based, and Utilitarian Evaluations Joon-Ho Kang * Richard P. Bagozzi * Jawang Oh * 7 2011 25 4 314 325 10.1123/jsm.25.4.314 Serious Sport
Research and Reviews A Structural Model of Image-Based and Utilitarian Decision-Making Processes for Participant Sport Consumption Joon-Ho Hang * 7 2002 16 3 173 189 10.1123/jsm.16.3.173 Research The Gender Gap in Student Attitudes Toward Sexist/Nonsexist Language: Implications for Sport
Perspective to Remodel Antecedents and Consequences of Participant Sport Event Satisfaction James Du * Jeremy S. Jordan * Daniel C. Funk * 11 2015 29 6 688 704 10.1123/JSM.2014-0225 Spectator Sport and Population Health: A Scoping Study Yuhei Inoue * Brennan K. Berg * Packianathan Chelladurai * 11