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Michael Annear, Tetsuhiro Kidokoro and Yasuo Shimizu

participation among their so-called five pillars of Olympic legacy that also envision economic, urban development, disaster recovery, and educational outcomes ( Tokyo Organizing Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games, 2016 ). Despite theoretical work and legacy planning that suggests that a

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Mirja Hirvensalo, Päivi Lampinen and Taina Rantanen

This study examined changes in involvement in physical exercise and the motives for and obstacles to participation over an 8-year period in a representative sample of senior residents of Jyväskylä. Finland. The participants were noninslitulionalized seniors age 65-84 years at baseline in 1988. The most common form of physical exercise was walking for fitness. In men, participation in supervised exercise classes and performing calisthenic exercises at home increased over the follow-up. In women, physical exercise generally declined. The most important reason quoted for nonparticipation at both baseline and follow-up was poor health (65-88%). Among those who reported participation in supervised physical exercise, the most important motives were health promotion (80%) and social reasons (40-50%). The main obstacles were poor health (19-38%) and lack of interest (28-26%). It is an important challenge to remove obstacles to participation in physical activity in old age and to give older people every opportunity to get involved.

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Den-Ching A. Lee, Lesley Day, Caroline F. Finch, Keith Hill, Lindy Clemson, Fiona McDermott and Terry P. Haines

This paper examines whether involvement in an observational study may prompt participants to change their exercise behaviors. Data were collected from 394 older community dwellers in Victoria, Australia using a baseline survey, and 245 of these participated in a follow-up survey one year later. Survey domains were drawn from constructs of relevant health behavior models. Results showed that the proportion of respondents who were currently participating in exercises to prevent falls at follow-up was 12% higher than at baseline (Wilcoxon p value < .001). Twenty-nine percent reported they had changed their perceptions about falls and their risk of falls, with comments focused on threat appraisal. Forty-four percent reported having taken strategies to reduce their risk of falling, with comments based on implementation of different preventive strategies. Respondents who held favorable views toward exercises for the prevention of falls appear to change their behaviors that might address falls when participating in observational studies.

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Rochelle Eime, Jack Harvey and Warren Payne

Background:

To examine the dose-response relationship between health related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (outcomes) and duration of recreational physical activity (exposure). Further, to explore whether these relationships depend on type of physical activity (PA).

Methods:

793 Australian rural-living women self-reported on duration of recreational PA; HRQoL via SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS); and a life satisfaction scale. ANOVAs and ANCOVAs investigated differences in outcomes (MCS, PCS, and life satisfaction) between tertiles of exposure to recreational PA, and types of PA (club sport, gymnasium, walking), with adjustment for potential confounders.

Results:

A significant positive dose-response relationship was found between PCS and level of PA. Furthermore, this relationship depended on type of PA, with club-sport participants recording higher PCS than non-club-sport participants in all but the highest tertile of exposure. Life satisfaction and MCS were not significantly related to level of PA.

Conclusion:

Physical health was positively associated with level of recreational PA, with club sport participation contributing greater benefits at low to moderate exposures than participation in gymnasium or walking activities.

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Joannie Halas

This paper presents a case study of a physical education program for troubled youth attending an adolescent treatment center. The site selected for study was deliberately chosen due to the alternative nature of the physical education program and its apparent success in helping to connect students to their school environment. The researcher, as bricoleur, used a variety of methodological tools and strategies to collect data that corresponded to the study’s entry question: How does the physical education program work? Constructed from the data is the story of a gymnasium culture that has been carefully crafted to promote physically and psychologically safe participation that is fair and flexible, where students are encouraged to play just for fun, and a lack of competence is positioned as an opportunity to learn. By incorporating the theoretical framework of the “Circle of Courage” (Brendtro, Brokenleg, & Van Bockern, 1998) into the data analysis, this paper is intended to show how physical education can provide a reclaiming versus alienating learning environment for young people.

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Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Viviane Grassmann, Krystn Orr, Amy C. McPherson, Guy E. Faulkner and F. Virginia Wright

Inclusion is a process that encourages individuals with a wide range of abilities to engage together in meaningful participation in an environment that fosters a sense of belongingness and autonomy ( DePauw & Doll-Tepper, 2000 ; Goodwin, 2003 ; Grenier, 2011 ). Inclusive physical activity (PA

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Paul A. Sellars, Stephen D. Mellalieu and Camilla J. Knight

In the United Kingdom, substantial dropout from sport, particularly team sport, is a continuing problem, warranting a call for strategies to enhance sport retention ( Department for Culture, Media, and Sport, 2010 ). An age group that continues to be of particular concern for sport participation is

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Wendy M. Holmes and Madeleine E. Hackney

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of 16 individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) partaking in an adapted tango class and the perceived impact on participation and quality of life (QOL). The Ecology of Human Performance and the International Classification of Function were the theoretical frameworks for the study. Data collection involved focus groups conducted during the intervention and at a follow-up six months later. Data analysis followed inductive thematic analysis techniques. The themes addressed living with PD, the class structure and experiences, the participants’ expectations for the class, and the multiple effects experienced by participants at both time periods. The results suggest that adapted tango, when offered in a structured environment with skilled instruction, may improve skills for participation in daily activities and contribute to increased QOL for persons with PD.

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Claire R. Jenkin, Rochelle M. Eime, Hans Westerbeek and Jannique G.Z. van Uffelen

active. To develop effective physical activity strategies, the barriers to, as well as the benefits of, physical activity participation for older adults needs to be better understood. The majority of the research investigating the benefits of, and the barriers to, physical activity participation for

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Nili Steinberg, Roger Adams, Moshe Ayalon, Nadav Dotan, Shiri Bretter and Gordon Waddington

. The aim of the present study was to assess whether proprioceptive ability measured by ankle complex movement discrimination ability (in N-WB and WB positions) and by JPR (in N-WB position) was related to injury history and to sport participation level and to evaluate the relation between JPR ability