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Physical Activity Among Urban-Living Middle-Aged and Older Japanese During the Build-Up to the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games: A Population Study

Michael Annear, Tetsuhiro Kidokoro, and Yasuo Shimizu

participation among their so-called five pillars of Olympic legacy that also envision economic, urban development, disaster recovery, and educational outcomes ( Tokyo Organizing Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games, 2016 ). Despite theoretical work and legacy planning that suggests that a

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Hockey Is Not for Everyone, But It Could Be

Victoria Kabetu, Ryan Snelgrove, Kimberly J. Lopez, and Daniel Wigfield

that it permits local hockey clubs to use ( Westhead, 2020 ). Steve also knew that a lack of BIPOC participants was not the only major issue the organization faced in attracting and retaining young participants. The high cost of participation continued to be at the forefront of explanations behind the

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Physical Activity in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Scoping Review

Lee Hill, Noushin Roofigari, Maria Faraz, Jelena Popov, Michal Moshkovich, Melanie Figueiredo, Emily Hartung, Meryem Talbo, Marie-Laure Lalanne-Mistrih, Mary Sherlock, Mary Zachos, Brian W. Timmons, Joyce Obeid, and Nikhil Pai

exacerbate IBD symptoms fatigue ( 12 ), several studies have suggested that the benefits out weigh any potential risk serology ( 37 , 47 , 67 , 71 , 74 ). It is thus important to address the potential barriers and facilitators for PA participation in pediatric IBD. However, potential barriers and

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Participant Bias in Community-Based Physical Activity Research: A Consistent Limitation?

Iris A. Lesser, Amanda Wurz, Corliss Bean, Nicole Culos-Reed, Scott A. Lear, and Mary Jung

literature wherein fitter men represent a greater number of participants. 7 , 8 However, there is less discussion of broader participant bias in physical activity studies. Anecdotally, across published individual articles, we consistently see greater participation from White, highly educated, economically

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“WOT” Do We Know and Do About Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents With Disabilities? A SWOT-Oriented Synthesis of Para Report Cards

Yeshayahu Hutzler, Sharon Barak, Salomé Aubert, Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Riki Tesler, Cindy Sit, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Piritta Asunta, Jurate Pozeriene, José Francisco López-Gil, and Kwok Ng

obesity, diabetes, and reduced cardiorespiratory and muscular function (e.g.,  Rimmer et al., 2007 ). Several authors have described barriers and facilitators to PA participation, as perceived among CAWD (see review in Martin Ginis et al., 2016 ), parents of CAWD ( McGarty & Melville, 2018 ), their

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Physical Exercise in Old Age: An Eight-Year Follow-Up Study on Involvement, Motives, and Obstacles among Persons Age 65-84

Mirja Hirvensalo, Päivi Lampinen, and Taina Rantanen

This study examined changes in involvement in physical exercise and the motives for and obstacles to participation over an 8-year period in a representative sample of senior residents of Jyväskylä. Finland. The participants were noninslitulionalized seniors age 65-84 years at baseline in 1988. The most common form of physical exercise was walking for fitness. In men, participation in supervised exercise classes and performing calisthenic exercises at home increased over the follow-up. In women, physical exercise generally declined. The most important reason quoted for nonparticipation at both baseline and follow-up was poor health (65-88%). Among those who reported participation in supervised physical exercise, the most important motives were health promotion (80%) and social reasons (40-50%). The main obstacles were poor health (19-38%) and lack of interest (28-26%). It is an important challenge to remove obstacles to participation in physical activity in old age and to give older people every opportunity to get involved.

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Dose-Response of Women’s Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and Life Satisfaction to Physical Activity

Rochelle Eime, Jack Harvey, and Warren Payne

Background:

To examine the dose-response relationship between health related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (outcomes) and duration of recreational physical activity (exposure). Further, to explore whether these relationships depend on type of physical activity (PA).

Methods:

793 Australian rural-living women self-reported on duration of recreational PA; HRQoL via SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS); and a life satisfaction scale. ANOVAs and ANCOVAs investigated differences in outcomes (MCS, PCS, and life satisfaction) between tertiles of exposure to recreational PA, and types of PA (club sport, gymnasium, walking), with adjustment for potential confounders.

Results:

A significant positive dose-response relationship was found between PCS and level of PA. Furthermore, this relationship depended on type of PA, with club-sport participants recording higher PCS than non-club-sport participants in all but the highest tertile of exposure. Life satisfaction and MCS were not significantly related to level of PA.

Conclusion:

Physical health was positively associated with level of recreational PA, with club sport participation contributing greater benefits at low to moderate exposures than participation in gymnasium or walking activities.

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Engaging Alienated Youth in Physical Education: An Alternative Program with Lessons for the Traditional Class

Joannie Halas

This paper presents a case study of a physical education program for troubled youth attending an adolescent treatment center. The site selected for study was deliberately chosen due to the alternative nature of the physical education program and its apparent success in helping to connect students to their school environment. The researcher, as bricoleur, used a variety of methodological tools and strategies to collect data that corresponded to the study’s entry question: How does the physical education program work? Constructed from the data is the story of a gymnasium culture that has been carefully crafted to promote physically and psychologically safe participation that is fair and flexible, where students are encouraged to play just for fun, and a lack of competence is positioned as an opportunity to learn. By incorporating the theoretical framework of the “Circle of Courage” (Brendtro, Brokenleg, & Van Bockern, 1998) into the data analysis, this paper is intended to show how physical education can provide a reclaiming versus alienating learning environment for young people.

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Investigation of Older Adults’ Participation in Exercises Following Completion of a State-wide Survey Targeting Evidence-based Falls Prevention Strategies

Den-Ching A. Lee, Lesley Day, Caroline F. Finch, Keith Hill, Lindy Clemson, Fiona McDermott, and Terry P. Haines

This paper examines whether involvement in an observational study may prompt participants to change their exercise behaviors. Data were collected from 394 older community dwellers in Victoria, Australia using a baseline survey, and 245 of these participated in a follow-up survey one year later. Survey domains were drawn from constructs of relevant health behavior models. Results showed that the proportion of respondents who were currently participating in exercises to prevent falls at follow-up was 12% higher than at baseline (Wilcoxon p value < .001). Twenty-nine percent reported they had changed their perceptions about falls and their risk of falls, with comments focused on threat appraisal. Forty-four percent reported having taken strategies to reduce their risk of falling, with comments based on implementation of different preventive strategies. Respondents who held favorable views toward exercises for the prevention of falls appear to change their behaviors that might address falls when participating in observational studies.

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A Scoping Review of Inclusive Out-of-School Time Physical Activity Programs for Children and Youth With Physical Disabilities

Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Viviane Grassmann, Krystn Orr, Amy C. McPherson, Guy E. Faulkner, and F. Virginia Wright

Inclusion is a process that encourages individuals with a wide range of abilities to engage together in meaningful participation in an environment that fosters a sense of belongingness and autonomy ( DePauw & Doll-Tepper, 2000 ; Goodwin, 2003 ; Grenier, 2011 ). Inclusive physical activity (PA