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Enzo Hollville, Vincent Le Croller, Yoshihiro Hirasawa, Rémi Husson, Giuseppe Rabita and Franck Brocherie

Internationale de Hockey’s rule changes). 1 The physical demands, therefore, require aerobic and anaerobic abilities combined with the aptitude to repeatedly execute technical skills (eg, passing and shooting) under pressure and while fatigued. Previous time–motion analysis studies have reported a decline in

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Farid Farhani, Hamid Rajabi, Raoof Negaresh, Ajmol Ali, Sadegh Amani Shalamzari and Julien S. Baker

participant was required to run with the ball for 8 m (from cone A to cone B; step 1) and then dribble zigzag with the ball through 7 cones (from cone B to cone H; step 2). After turning past cone I, the participant sends a long pass to the first passing player (PP) next to cone K and then proceeds to the

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Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani, Ian Rollo, Oliver C. Witard and Stuart D. R. Galloway

a 12% CHO-E beverage before kickoff and during the halftime period, versus the ingestion of an equivalent volume of a placebo-electrolyte beverage, would improve the retention of soccer-specific skills (dribbling speed and accuracy, passing speed and accuracy), sprint speed, and anaerobic endurance

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Glenn S. Fleisig, Rafael F. Escamilla, James R. Andrews, Tomoyuki Matsuo, Yvonne Satterwhite and Steve W. Barrentine

Kinematic and kinetic aspects of baseball pitching and football passing were compared. Twenty-six high school and collegiate pitchers and 26 high school and collegiate quarterbacks were analyzed using three-dimensional high-speed motion analysis. Although maximum shoulder external rotation occurred earlier for quarterbacks, maximum angular velocity of pelvis rotation, upper torso rotation, elbow extension, and shoulder internal rotation occurred earlier and achieved greater magnitude for pitchers. Quarterbacks had shorter strides and stood more erect at ball release. During arm cocking, quarterbacks demonstrated greater elbow flexion and shoulder horizontal adduction. To decelerate the arm, pitchers generated greater compressive force at the elbow and greater compressive force and adduction torque at the shoulder. These results may help explain differences in performance and injury rates between the two sports.

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Karen H. Weiller, Allen W. Jackson and Rhonda D. Meyer

Previous research has reported that Hispanic youth were significantly higher in skinfolds and body mass index (BMI) when contrasted to national reference data or comparison groups of white youth. The present study sought to determine the passing percentage for a sample of Hispanic youth for the BMI and the 1-mile run (OMR) using the Fitnessgram standards. The sample included 722 children, ages 7 to 14 years. The Hispanic youth’s passing percentages for the OMR compare favorably with the National Children and Youth Fitness Studies. The BMI results indicate the passing percentages are lower for the Hispanic, which is in agreement with past reports on body composition in Hispanic youth. Using the Fitnessgram standards, these data indicate the cardiovascular endurance of Hispanic youth may be similar to or better than the general population of children in the U.S. A higher rate of unhealthy body composition may be present, which would warrant targeted interventions for Hispanic children.

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Mark Russell, David Benton and Michael Kingsley

Purpose:

This study examined the effects of exercise-induced fatigue on soccer skills performed throughout simulated match play.

Methods:

Fifteen academy soccer players completed a soccer match simulation (SMS) including passing, dribbling, and shooting skills. Precision, success rate, and ball speed were determined via video analysis for all skills. Blood samples were obtained before exercise (preexercise), every 15 min during the simulation (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min), and 10 min into half-time.

Results:

Preliminary testing confirmed test-retest repeatability of performance, physiological, and metabolic responses to 45 min of the SMS. Exercise influenced shooting precision (timing effect: P = .035) and passing speed (timing effect: P = .011), such that shots taken after exercise were 25.5 ± 4.0% less accurate than those taken before exercise and passes in the last 15 min were 7.8 ± 4.3% slower than in the first 15 min. Shot and pass speeds were slower during the second half compared with the first half (shooting: 17.3 ± 0.3 m·s-1 vs 16.6 ± 0.3 m·s-1, P = 0.012; passing: 13.0 ± 0.5 m·s-1 vs 12.2 ± 0.5 m·s-1, P = 0.039). Dribbling performance was unaffected by exercise. Blood lactate concentrations were elevated above preexercise values throughout exercise (time of sample effect: P < .001).

Conclusions:

These findings demonstrate that soccer-specific exercise influenced the quality of performance in gross motor skills, such as passing and shooting. Therefore, interventions to maintain skilled performance during the second half of soccer match play are warranted.

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Edited by Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko

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Bareket Falk

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Paul S. Bradley, Carlos Lago-Peñas and Ezequiel Rey

Purpose:

To evaluate match performances of substitute players using different research designs.

Methods:

English Premier League matches were analyzed using a multiple-camera system. Two research designs were adopted: an independent-measures analysis comparing the match-performance characteristics of players completing the entire match (n = 810) vs substitutes (n = 286) and the players they replaced (n = 286) and a repeated-measures analysis comparing the same players completing full matches vs those in which they were introduced as a substitute (n = 94).

Results:

Most substitutions (P < .05) occurred at halftime and between the 60- to 85-min vs all first-half periods and the remaining second-half periods (effect size [ES]: 0.85–1.21). These substitutions become more (P < .01) offensive (eg, more attacking positions were introduced) in relation to the positions introduced as the half progressed (ES: 0.93–1.37). Independent-measures analysis indicated that high-intensity running was greater (P < .01) in substitutes compared with players who either completed the entire match or were replaced (ES: 0.28–0.67), but no differences were evident for pass-completion rates (ES: 0.01–0.02). Repeated-measures analysis highlighted that players covered more (P < .01) high-intensity running when they were introduced as substitutes compared with the equivalent period of the second- but not the first-half period (ES: 0.21–0.47). Both research designs indicated that attackers covered more (P < .05) high-intensity running than peers or their own performances when completing the entire match (ES: 0.45– 0.71).

Conclusions:

Substitutes cover greater high-intensity-running distance; this was particularly evident in attackers, but pass-completion rates did not differ for any position. This information could be beneficial to coaches regarding optimizing the match running performances of their players, but much more work needs to be undertaken to investigate the overall impact of substitutes (physical, technical indicators, and contribution to key moments of matches).