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Keitaro Kubo, Hiroaki Kanehisa, and Tetsuo Fukunaga

The purposes of this study were to compare the elasticity of tendon and aponeurosis in human knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors in vivo and to examine whether the maximal strain of tendon was correlated to that of aponeurosis. The elongation of tendon and aponeurosis during isometric knee extension (n = 23) and ankle plantar flexion (n = 22), respectively, were determined using a real-time ultrasonic apparatus, while the participants performed ramp isometric contractions up to voluntary maximum. To calculate the strain values from the measured elongation, we measured the respective length of tendon and aponeurosis. For the knee extensors, the maximal strain of aponeurosis (12.1 ± 2.8%) was significantly greater than that of the patella tendon (8.3 ± 2.4%), p < 0.001. On the contrary, the maximal strain of Achilles tendon (5.9 ± 1.4%) was significantly greater than that of aponeurosis in ankle plantar flexors (2.7 ± 1.4%), p < 0.001. Furthermore, for both knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors there was no significant correlation between maximal strain of tendon and aponeurosis. These results would be important for understanding the different roles of tendon and aponeurosis during human movements and for more accurate muscle modeling.

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Liang-Ching Tsai, Irving S. Scher, and Christopher M. Powers

The purpose of this study is to describe an MRI-based EMG-driven knee model to quantify tibiofemoral compressive and shear forces. Twelve healthy females participated. Subjects underwent 2 phases of data collection: (1) MRI assessment of the lower extremity to quantify muscle volumes and patella tendon orientation and (2) biomechanical evaluation of a drop-jump task. A subject-specific EMG-driven knee model that incorporated lower extremity kinematics, EMG, and muscle volumes and patella tendon orientation estimated from MRI was developed to quantify tibiofemoral shear and compressive forces. A resultant anterior tibial shear force generated from the ground reaction force (GRF) and muscle forces was observed during the first 30% of the stance phase of the drop-jump task. All of the muscle forces and GRF resulted in tibiofemoral compression, with the quadriceps force being the primary contributor. Acquiring subject-specific muscle volumes and patella tendon orientation for use in an EMG-driven knee model may be useful to quantify tibiofemoral forces in persons with altered patella position or muscle atrophy following knee injury or pathology.

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. previous knee surgery 10. In this case, the three patients were treated with PRT at these two sites: a. patella tendon and psoas muscle b. patella tendon and quadriceps muscle c. patella tendon and quadriceps tendon d. psoas muscle and quadriceps tendon 11. Discharge criteria for these patients included

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Lucas C. Bianco, James M. May, Smokey L. Fermin, Robert Oates, and Scott W. Cheatham

patient outcomes related to function and pain. Persistent pain in the anterior aspect of the knee is commonly associated with patella tendinopathy. 1 – 3 Patella tendinopathy includes conditions involving the patella tendon on the inferior pole of the patella and is commonly associated with inflammation

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Jay R. Ebert, Kate E. Webster, Peter K. Edwards, Brendan K. Joss, Peter D’Alessandro, Greg Janes, and Peter Annear

. Most (90%) surgeons used a hamstring tendon autograft for primary ACLR with only one surgeon reporting regular use of both hamstring and patellar tendon autografts. A survey undertaken by AKS members in 2002 indicated that almost two-thirds (61%) regularly performed both hamstring and patella tendon

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Hayley M. Ericksen, Brian Pietrosimone, Phillip A. Gribble, and Abbey C. Thomas

W . Gender comparison of patella tendon tibial shaft angle with weight bearing . Res Sports Med Int J . 2003 ; 11 ( 3 ): 173 – 185 . doi:10.1080/15438620390231193 10.1080/15438620390231193 12. Boden BP , Torg JS , Knowles SB , Hewett TE . Video analysis of anterior cruciate ligament

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Laura C. Slane, Stijn Bogaerts, Darryl G. Thelen, and Lennart Scheys

.1097/00003086-200207000-00030 10.1097/00003086-200207000-00030 7. Haraldsson BT , Aagaard P , Krogsgaard M , Alkjaer T , Kjaer M , Magnusson SP . Region-specific mechanical properties of the human patella tendon . J Appl Physiol . 2005 ; 98 ( 3 ): 1006 – 1012 . PubMed doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00482

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Kenneth Färnqvist, Stephen Pearson, and Peter Malliaras

changes in patella tendons 46 alongside a RCT where participants with Achilles tendinopathy were divided by pathology (reactive vs. degenerative), to examine the  effects of supplements and exercise on pathology and patient outcomes. 47 Whether change in tendon thickness is a mechanism explaining change

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Yumeng Li, He Wang, and Kathy J. Simpson

increased ACL loading. However, this may not be true based on our tibiofemoral contact force data. The possible reason was that the CAI group also exhibited a greater knee flexion angle 15 that could decrease the tibial anterior shear force by decreasing the patella tendon–tibia shaft angle. 36 , 37

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David G. Behm, Nehara Herat, Gerard M.J. Power, Joseph A. Brosky, Phil Page, and Shahab Alizadeh

femoris), quadriceps (rectus femoris), and gastrocnemius was used. The measurement sites for the patella tendon and lateral epicondylar tendon were 1 cm distal from the bony origin. For the Achilles tendon, the measurement was taken at one third of the distance of the tendon length distal to its insertion