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Deborah L. Feltz, Graig M. Chow and Teri J. Hepler

The Feltz (1982) path analysis of the relationship between diving efficacy and performance showed that, over trials, past performance was a stronger predictor than self-efficacy of performance. Bandura (1997) criticized the study as statistically “overcontrolling” for past performance by using raw past performance scores along with self-efficacy as predictors of performance. He suggests residualizing past performance by regressing the raw scores on self-efficacy and entering them into the model to remove prior contributions of self-efficacy imbedded in past performance scores. To resolve this controversy, we reanalyzed the Feltz data using three statistical models: raw past performance, residual past performance, and a method that residualizes past performance and self-efficacy. Results revealed that self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of performance in both residualized models than in the raw past performance model. Furthermore, the influence of past performance on future performance was weaker when the residualized methods were conducted.

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Ilona I. McMullan, Brendan P. Bunting, Lee Smith, Ai Koyanagi and Mark A. Tully

covariates based on existing literature, a path analysis within the framework of structural equation modeling was used (Figure  1 ). Figure 1 Total indirect effects between self-reported PA and self-rated vision. Note . PA = physical activity; CES-D = Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CVD

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Fuzhong Li and K. John Fisher


This study examined the relationship between physical activity and self-rated health in older adults at both the neighborhood level and the resident level.


A multilevel design was used that involved neighborhoods as the primary sampling unit and residents nested within each neighborhood. Residents (N = 582, mean age = 73.99 years, SD = 6.26) from 56 neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon, were surveyed on neighborhood physical activity and health status.


Multilevel path analysis showed a positive relationship between physical activity and health status at the neighborhood level. In addition, perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion, proximity to physical activity facilities, safety for walking, and importance of physical activity involvement, were positively related to high levels of physical activity. At the resident level, education and walking efficacy were positively associated with physical activity.


The results provide evidence that neighborhood-level physical activity is positively linked to neighborhood-level self-rated health in older adults.

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Deborah L. Feltz and Denise A. Mugno

The present investigation was designed to replicate and extend the Feltz (1982) study of the causal elements in Bandura's (1977) theory of self-efficacy. Path analysis techniques were employed to investigate the predictions based on Bandura's model of self-efficacy, along with the additional influence of autonomic perception on the approach/avoidance behavior of female college students (N = 80) attempting a modified-back dive. The Bandura model predicted a reciprocal relationship between self-efficacy and back-diving performance, and between self-efficacy and physiological arousal (heart rate). It was also predicted that autonomic perception was a better predictor of self-efficacy than was physiological arousal, but not better than previous back-diving performance. Additionally, self-efficacy was hypothesized to be the mediator of past performance accomplishments, physiological arousal, and autonomic perception on back-diving performance. Bandura's model was tested against a “full” model that included performance, autonomic perception, and actual physiological arousal, along with self-efficacy as direct causal influences of back-diving performance. Results provided greater support for the full model. Although one's self-efficacy was the major predictor of performance on Trial 1, subjects' heart rates also significantly predicted performance on Trial 1. After Trial 1, back-diving performance on a previous trial was the major predictor of performance on the next trial. Furthermore, one's perception of autonomic arousal was a significant influence on self-efficacy but not on performance. Previous back-diving performance, however, was a better predictor of self-efficacy than autonomic perception. No reciprocal relationship was found between self-efficacy and physiological arousal. Moreover, the full model explained more performance variance than did the Bandura model.

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Nadja Schott and Maike Tietjens

casual paths of physical activity behavior (standardized solution). All solid lines represent significant effects (* p  < .05; ** p  < .01; *** p  < .10); bold lines represent paths of study interest; broken lines represent proposed paths that were nonsignificant. Male: n  = 25; female: n  = 66. Path

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Shreela V. Sharma, Deanna M. Hoelscher, Steven H. Kelder, Pamela M. Diamond, R. Sue Day and Albert C. Hergenroeder


The purpose of this study was to identify pathways used by psychosocial factors to influence physical activity and bone health in middle-school girls.


Baseline data from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study collected in 2001 to 2003 were used. IMPACT was a 1 1/2 years nutrition and physical activity intervention study designed to improve bone density in 717 middle-school girls in Texas. Structural Equations Modeling was used to examine the interrelationships and identify the direct and indirect pathways used by various psychosocial and environmental factors to influence physical activity and bone health.


Results show that physical activity self-efficacy and social support (friend, family engagement, and encouragement in physical activity) had a significant direct and indirect influence on physical activity with participation in sports teams as the mediator. Participation in sports teams had a direct effect on both physical activity (β= 0.20, P < .05) and bone health and (β=0.13, P < .05).


The current study identified several direct and indirect pathways that psychosocial factors use to influence physical activity and bone health among adolescent girls. These findings are critical for the development of effective interventions for promoting bone health in this population.

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Thomas R. George

Using path analytic techniques, the causal relationships in Bandura's model of self-efficacy were examined in a field setting. Male intercollegiate and interscholastic baseball players (N = 53) completed self-report measures over a nine-game period during the baseball season. Perceptions of self-efficacy, competitive state anxiety, effort expenditure, and objective hitting performance were measured. Moderate support for Bandura's model was found in that higher performances predicted stronger percepts of efficacy in six games, and lower levels of somatic and cognitive anxiety were associated with stronger self-efficacy beliefs in seven games. In turn, stronger self-efficacy predicted greater effort in six games and higher hitting performance in five games. Results are discussed in relation to the ecological validity of previous causal examinations of self-efficacy theory, as well as the utility of self-efficacy theory as a framework for investigating the self-confidence-performance relationship.

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David E. Vance, Karlene K. Ball, Daniel L. Roenker, Virginia G. Wadley, Jerri D. Edwards and Gayla M. Cissell

Falls can impair health and reduce quality of life among older adults. Although many factors are related to falling, few analyses examine causal models of this behavior. In this study, factors associated with falling were explored simultaneously using structural-equation modeling. A variety of cognitive, physical-performance, and health measures were administered to 694 older adult drivers from the state of Maryland. The observed and latent variables of age, cognitive ability, physical functioning, health, and falling behavior were used to create a causal model. The model revealed that being older was associated with declines in cognition, and such cognitive declines predicted increased falling. Similarly, poorer health was related to poorer physical functioning, which, in turn, also predicted increased falling. This model indicates that in addition to existing fall-prevention interventions aimed at improving physical functioning, interventions to improve cognition and health might also be effective. It is speculated that fear of falling, which often results in reduced mobility among older adults, might account for the lack of a direct relationship between age and falling. This hypothesis should be examined in further research.

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Maria-Christina Kosteli, Jennifer Cumming and Sarah E. Williams

) factorial ANOVAs were then conducted to examine any differences in any of the study variables. To test the hypothesized model, driven by SCT, path analysis was conducted using AMOS 22.0 software and the same model fit criteria as described above. As a way to assess the indirect effects and establish whether

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Sami Yli-Piipari, Todd Layne, Janet Hinson and Carol Irwin

Bonferroni-adjustment. In the main analysis, a path analysis strategy was utilized to test the hypotheses of the study ( Mulaik & Millsap, 2000 ). Based on the TCM, estimated covariance stabilities in regards of a priori default model were estimated as follows: perception of PE autonomy support (T2