Eating disorder prevalence rates among athletes vary greatly because of the different ways in which researchers have measured and classified them, and the extent to which they are higher than those found among nonathletes remains unresolved. The present study examined prevalence of eating disorders, body image issues, and weight control behaviors using a valid diagnostic measure. Participants included 146 male and 156 female NCAA Division I student-athletes and a matched sample of 170 male and 353 female collegiate nonathletes. Overall, eating disorder prevalence rates and use of pathogenic weight control behaviors were lower among nonathletes than athletes. Rates for athletes in the current study were lower than previous studies. These findings are likely due to the lack of anonymity the athletes had when completing questionnaires, as data were collected through athletes’ preseason physicals, whereas nonathletes completed questionnaires anonymously over the Internet. Recommendations for athletic departments’ screening for eating disorders are made.
Laura D. DiPasquale and Trent A. Petrie
Sara Long Anderson, Kate Zager, Ronald K. Hetzler, Marcia Nahikian-Nelms, and Georganne Syler
The intensity and effort of bodybuilding training suggest an overinvestment in body shape and physical appearance, which has been suggested to be a risk factor for developing eating disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating disorder tendencies among a sample of collegiate male bodybuilders (BB, n = 68) and controls (C, n = 50) (nonbodybuilders), using the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 (EDI-2). T tests were used to test the hypothesis that bodybuilders' scores would be higher than those of controls. The mean scores on the EDI-2 did not indicate the presence of eating disorder tendencies for either group. Controls scored significantly higher than bodybuilders on the Body Dissatisfaction scale. Results indicate that when the EDI-2 is used, college-age male bodybuilders are not shown to be more likely to have eating disorders than a group of college-age male controls.
Diane E. Taub and Rose Ann Benson
Since most research on eating disorders among athletes has focused on college-age samples, the present investigation examines the adolescent competitive swimmer. Three areas related to weight and eating habits were explored: general concerns about weight, use of weight control techniques, and tendencies toward anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa and associated behavioral/personal characteristics. Previous research has found females to be at greater risk than males, thus gender comparisons were undertaken. Questionnaires were completed by 85 adolescent competitive swimmers attending a nationally known summer swim camp at a large midwestern university. Consistent with the cultural norm of thinness for women, young female swimmers desired weight loss more than their male counterparts did. In terms of actual pathogenic weight control techniques or eating disorder tendencies, however, few significant gender differences were found. Neither male nor female adolescent swimmers were particularly susceptible to eating disorders or pathogenic weight control techniques.
Sharon R. Guthrie, Cathy Ferguson, and Dixie Grimmett
This research examined the nutritional practices and body images of 13 competitive women bodybuilders living in southern California and in the Midwest. Data collection included both structured interviews and survey methods. Findings indicate nutritional health and positive body image among this sample of women. None of the bodybuilders had anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) criteria, were binge eaters or used pathogenic weight control measures. Instead, they reported significant improvement in their nutritional attitudes and behaviors after beginning bodybuilding training. These data suggest a relationship between participating in competitive bodybuilding and other behaviors related to nutrition and self-perception.
Katherine A. Beals and Melinda M. Manore
The purpose of this study was to delineate and further define the behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders. Subjects consisted of 24 athletes with subclinical eating disorders (SCED) and 24 control athletes. Group classification was determined by scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and a symptom checklist for eating disorders (EDI-SC). Characteristics representative of the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders were derived from an extensive health and dieting history questionnaire and an in-depth interview (the Eating Disorder Examination). Energy intake and expenditure (kcal/d) were estimated using 7-day weighed food records and activity logs. The characteristics most common in the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders included: (a) preoccupation with food, energy intake, and body weight; (b) distorted body image and body weight dissatisfaction; (c) undue influence of body weight on self-evaluation; (d) intense fear of gaining weight even though at or slightly below (-5%) normal weight; (e) attempts to lose weight using one or more pathogenic weight control methods; (g) food intake governed by strict dietary rules, accompanied by extreme feelings of guilt and self-hatred upon breaking a rule; (h) absence of medical disorder to explain energy restriction, weight loss, or maintenance of low body weight; and (i) menstrual dysfunction. Awareness of these characteristics may aid in more timely identification and treatment of female athletes with disordered eating patterns and, perhaps, prevent the development of more serious, clinical eating disorders.
Damir Zubac, Hrvoje Karnincic, and Damir Sekulic
attempt control for the internal and external validity of the investigation. Conclusions Rapid weight loss practices are not extremely prevalent among elite international youth boxers; nonetheless, our study provided evidence of pathogenic weight-control protocols that are widely adopted by youth boxing
Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney, and Riley Nickols
, J.M. , & Petrie , T.A. ( 2013 ). Prevalence of disordered eating and pathogenic weight control behaviors among male collegiate athletes . Eating Disorders, 21 , 328 – 341 . 23767673 doi:10.1080/10640266.2013.797822 10.1080/10640266.2013.797822 Coker-Cranney , A. , & Reel , J.J. ( 2015
Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Ariel Mueller, Daniel P. Walsh, Shahzad Shaefi, Akiva Leibowitz, and Todd Sarge
. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 28 ( 6 ), 565 – 573 . PubMed ID: 29182412 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0183 10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0183 Rosen , L.W. , McKeag , D.B. , Hough , D.O. , & Curley , V. ( 1986 ). Pathogenic weight-control behavior in female athletes . Physician
Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel
.10.002 Chatterton , J.M. , & Petrie , T.A. ( 2013 ). Prevalence of disordered eating and pathogenic weight control behaviors among male collegiate athletes . Eating Disorders, 21 , 328 – 341 . PubMed ID: 23767673 doi:10.1080/10640266.2013.797822 10.1080/10640266.2013.797822 Creswell , J.W. ( 2014
Tanya McGuane, Stephen Shannon, Lee-Ann Sharp, Martin Dempster, and Gavin Breslin
weight control behaviors among male collegiate athletes . Eating Disorders, 21 ( 4 ), 328 – 341 . PubMed ID: 23767673 doi:10.1080/10640266.2013.797822 10.1080/10640266.2013.797822 Cormick , B. ( 2006 , January 21). Officials to pull the reins of wasting . The Australian, p. 52 . Cullen , S