After a randomized controlled trial showing that improvement on some aspects of cognitive function was related to adherence to an exercise program, determinants of adherence and maintenance were further studied. Older adults with mild cognitive impairment were contacted 6 mo after the end of exercise programs for a telephone interview addressing patterns of adherence and determinants of maintenance. Mean adherence during the trial was 53%. About one third of participants had lapses during the trial but completed, one third had no lapses, and one third dropped out or never started. Practical barriers (time, location) were related to not starting and functional limitations to dropout. After the trial 25% of participants continued the programs, 14% reported intention to continue, and 61% quit. Maintenance was determined by fewer health complaints, higher satisfaction with the programs, and better adherence during the programs. Although maintenance was low, this study identified several reasons and barriers to adherence and maintenance that could be addressed.
Erwin C.P.M. Tak, Jannique G.Z. van Uffelen, Mai J.M. Chin A Paw, Willem van Mechelen and Marijke Hopman-Rock
Eldon E. Snyder and Elmer Spreitzer
This study analyzes correlates of adherence to a physical fitness regimen. The sample consisted of adults who had volunteered to take a physical fitness stress test at a sports physiology laboratory. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to persons who had taken the stress test over the past 5 years. The rationale for the study was an attempt to develop a profile of the prospective dropout from a physical fitness program in order to permit special intervention to enhance the probability of adherence. The findings showed that 31% of the persons in our sample were basically inactive subsequent to the stress test. Our set of 11 predictor variables was able to explain 33% of the variance in physical activity.
Miriam C. Morey, Patricia M. Dubbert, Martha E. Doyle, Helga MacAller, Gail M. Crowley, Maggie Kuchibhatla, Margaret Schenkman and Ronnie D. Horner
Getting older adults to initiate and maintain long-term exercise is an important public health mandate. This study is an analysis of a clinical trial of 112 sedentary adults, age 65–90 years, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 exercise interventions. We examined predictors and patterns of adherence of the 6-month home-based component of the trial. Telephone follow-up and diaries were used to assess adherence. Adherence to weekend exercise during the supervised phase of the program was the strongest predictor of subsequent home-based adherence. Adherence appeared stable throughout the intervention, indicating that adherence or nonadherence was established from the outset. The authors conclude that nonadherence can be identified early in the behavioral-change process. Future studies should focus on developing strategies for adults with chronic illnesses, depressive symptoms, and functional limitations who are nonadherent early on as they initiate and attempt to maintain exercise.
Research Patterns of Adherence to a Physical Conditioning Program Eldon E. Snyder * Elmer Spreitzer * 6 1984 1 2 103 116 10.1123/ssj.1.2.103 Interscholastic Athletic Participation and Delinquent Behavior: An Empirical Assessment of Relevant Variables Jeffrey O. Segrave Douglas N. Hastad 6