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Neslihan Duruturk, Nihan Ozunlu Pekyavas, Atakan Yρlmaz and Metin Karatas

Objective:

Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities are important components of athletic performance. The use of Kinesio Taping® (KT) as a supplementary treatment in athletic settings has increased in the recent years. KT can facilitate muscle contraction, which may be useful for improving performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of KT to the quadriceps muscle has any effect on anaerobic and aerobic performance in young healthy individuals.

Design:

Randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical study.

Setting:

Baskent University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation.

Patients:

Thirty-two healthy male participants were randomly assigned to either the KT group or a sham KT (SKT) group.

Interventions:

The KT muscle facilitation technique was applied to the quadriceps muscle bilaterally and measurements were taken 45 min later to ensure full adhesion.

Main Outcome Measures:

The Wingate cycle ergometer test was used to assess peak anaerobic power (peak AnP, in Watts) and exercise capacity (Watt/kg), while the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) was used to assess aerobic exercise capacity of the participants. Comparisons between groups were performed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test, while those between baseline and posttaping used the nonparametric Wilcoxon test.

Results:

No significant difference was found between the two groups in the aerobic or anaerobic test parameters (p > .05). Within the groups, a significant improvement in time factors in peak AnP (929.7 2 ± 184.37 W to 1043.49 ± 224.42 W) was found only in the KT group (p = .028) and no other parameter was significantly different (p > .05).

Conclusions:

KT applied to the quadriceps muscle can positively improve anaerobic exercise performance and athletic performance capacity. However, KT did not affect aerobic capacity. Further research is needed to show that KT can improve and support anaerobic and aerobic exercise capacity in healthy participants or athletes.

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Danny Too

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of systematic changes in hip position/configuration on cycling peak anaerobic power (AP) and anaerobic capacity (AC). Fourteen male recreational cyclists (ages 21-32 yrs) were tested in four hip positions (25, 50, 75, and 100°), as defined by the angle formed by the seat tube and a vertical line. Rotating the seat to maintain a backrest perpendicular to the ground induced a systematic decrease in hip angle from the 25 to the 100° position. The Wingate anaerobic cycling test was used on a Monark cycle ergometer with a resistance of 85 gm/kg of the subject’s body mass. Repeated-measures MANOVAs and post hoc tests revealed that AP and AC in the 75° hip position were significantly greater than in the 25 or 100° position and that a second-order function best describes the trend in AP and AC with changes in hip position.

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Giorgos P. Paradisis, Athanassios Bissas and Carlton B. Cooke

Purpose:

This study examined the effects of sprint running training on sloping surfaces (3°) on selected kinematic and physiological variables.

Methods:

Fifty-four sport and physical education students were randomly allocated to one of two training groups (combined uphill–downhill [U+D] and horizontal (H)) and a control group (C). Pre- and post training tests were performed to examine the effects of 8 wk of training on the maximum running speed (MRS), step rate, step length, step time, contact time, eccentric and concentric phase of contact time (EP, CP), fight time, selected posture characteristics of the step cycle, and 6-s maximal cycle sprint test.

Results:

MRS, step rate, contact time, and step time were improved significantly in a 35-m sprint test for the U+D group (P < .01) after training by 4.3%, 4.3%, -5.1%, and -3.9% respectively, whereas the H group showed smaller improvements, (1.7% (P < .05), 1.2% (P < .01), 1.7% (P < .01), and 1.2% (P < .01) respectively). There were no significant changes in the C group. The posture characteristics and the peak anaerobic power (AWT) performance did not change with training in any of the groups.

Conclusion:

The U+D training method was significantly more effective in improving MRS and the kinematic characteristics of sprint running than a traditional horizontal training method.

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Andrew Pardue, Eric T. Trexler and Lisa K. Sprod

Extreme body composition demands of competitive bodybuilding have been associated with unfavorable physiological changes, including alterations in metabolic rate and endocrine profile. The current case study evaluated the effects of contest preparation (8 months), followed by recovery (5 months), on a competitive drug-free male bodybuilder over 13 months (M1-M13). Serum testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin were measured throughout the study. Body composition (BodPod, dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), anaerobic power (Wingate test), and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were assessed monthly. Sleep was assessed monthly via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and actigraphy. From M1 to M8, testosterone (623–173 ng∙dL-1), T3 (123–40 ng∙dL-1), and T4 (5.8–4.1 mg∙dL-1) decreased, while cortisol (25.2–26.5 mg∙dL-1) and ghrelin (383–822 pg∙mL-1) increased. The participant lost 9.1 kg before competition as typical energy intake dropped from 3,860 to 1,724 kcal∙day-1; BodPod estimates of body fat percentage were 13.4% at M1, 9.6% at M8, and 14.9% at M13; DXA estimates were 13.8%, 5.1%, and 13.8%, respectively. Peak anaerobic power (753.0 to 536.5 Watts) and RMR (107.2% of predicted to 81.2% of predicted) also decreased throughout preparation. Subjective sleep quality decreased from M1 to M8, but objective measures indicated minimal change. By M13, physiological changes were largely, but not entirely, reversed. Contest preparation may yield transient, unfavorable changes in endocrine profile, power output, RMR, and subjective sleep outcomes. Research with larger samples must identify strategies that minimize unfavorable adaptations and facilitate recovery following competition.

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Mark Glaister, Colin Towey, Owen Jeffries, Daniel Muniz-Pumares, Paul Foley and Gillian McInnes

with torque factors of 0.75 to 0.90 N·m·kg −1 . 3 – 9 With the exception of the findings of Woolf et al, 9 all have found no effect of caffeine on performance. Nevertheless, Anselme et al 10 and Glaister et al 11 observed a significant effect of caffeine on peak anaerobic power output as determined

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Thomas Haugen, Gøran Paulsen, Stephen Seiler and Øyvind Sandbakk

unit produced independent of oxygen consumption. Anaerobic metabolic reactions drive a 4-fold faster peak rate of energy transfer than the aerobic system. 33 From a practical perspective, peak anaerobic power signifies the greatest instantaneous power during a single movement with the aim of producing

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Mark Glaister and Conor Gissane

, McInnes G . Caffeine supplementation and peak anaerobic power output . Eur J Sport Sci . 2015 ; 15 ( 5 ): 400 – 406 . PubMed doi:10.1080/17461391.2014.962619 10.1080/17461391.2014.962619 25275888 3. Glaister M , Howatson G , Abraham CS , et al . Caffeine supplementation and multiple sprint

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Chris G. Harwood and Sam N. Thrower

arousal, improve choice reaction times ( Bishop et al., 2009 ), and increase peak anaerobic power ( Eliakim et al., 2007 ). Studies have also directly compared the effectiveness of music against other psychological strategies. For example, Miller and Donohue ( 2003 ) examined the influence of two mental