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John A. Mercer, Janet S. Dufek and Barry T. Bates


To compare peak oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) during treadmill (TM) running and exercise on an elliptical trainer (ET).


A graded exercise test (GXT) during TM running and ET exercise.


Physically active college students (N = 14; 25 ± 4.6 years). Each completed a TM GXT and ET GXT on separate days.


There were no differences in either VO2peak or peak HR between TM (53.0 ± 7.7 ml · kg–1 · min–1, 193.4 ± 9.4 bpm) and ET (51.6 ± 10.7 ml · kg–1 · min–1, 191.2 ± 11.5 bpm; P > .05). Correlations between HR and VO2 data for all stages of exercise for all subjects were similar between machines (ET: r = .88; TM: r = .95; P > .05).


No adjustments to the target HR used during TM running are necessary when using the ET.

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M. Kathleen Ellis and Lynn A. Darby

This study compared balance and peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) among hearing, congenital nonhearing, and acquired nonhearing female intercollegiate athletes. Twenty-seven subjects completed two measures of peak VO2 and two measures of balance (static and dynamic). Two pieces of exercise equipment requiring different levels of balance were used: the bicycle ergometer (minimal balance) and the bench-step (maximal balance). Significant differences were found for dynamic balance and for peak VO2 for all subject groups. The significant difference remained among the groups for peak VO2 using the bicycle ergometer when dynamic balance was used as a covariate. There was no significant difference for peak VO2 dependent on type of test when dynamic balance was controlled. The results indicated that dynamic balance affected peak VO2 performance on the bench-step, but not on the bicycle ergometer. These findings suggest that if dynamic balance is required for an assessment of peak VO2, balance should be tested in nonhearing populations.

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Seihati A. Shiroma, Ursula F. Julio and Emerson Franchini

the correctness of the technique execution. Physiological, Perceptual, and Performance Variables In all GETs and UK conf , the following variables were analyzed: peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 peak ), maximal HR (HR max ), peak blood lactate concentration [La peak ], maximal aerobic intensity (MAP

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Julien Tripette, Haruka Murakami, Hidemi Hara, Ryoko Kawakami, Yuko Gando, Harumi Ohno, Nobuyuki Miyatake and Motohiko Miyachi

; VO PEAK  = oxygen consumption at maximal power; Vert. jump = vertical jump; VPA = vigorous physical activity. Table 3 Correlation Test Results Between Caffeine Consumption and Physical Activity and Caffeine Consumption and Physical Fitness (Cross-Sectional Analysis) Women Men MVPA (MET-hr/day) r

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Maddison J. Jones and Peter Peeling


To compare the differences in peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and lactate threshold (LT2) between the 7 × 4-min incremental step test (7-ST) and the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) test protocols in sprint kayak athletes.


Nine highly trained kayak athletes performed the 2 laboratory test protocols. The 7-ST involved six 4-min submaximal incremental stages, each separated by a 1-min recovery, before a 4-min all-out effort. The MAOD test involved four 4-min submaximal incremental stages (also with each stage separated by a 1-min recovery), followed by 20-min recovery and a 4-min all-out effort.


No statistically significant differences in VO2peak were recorded between the 2 protocols (P > .05). However, distance covered, power output, stroke rate, and speed were almost certainly greater in the MAOD test (magnitude-based inference: 99–100% positive), while blood lactate (BLa), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were likely lower (magnitude-based inference: 78–92% negative). The derived measures of LT2 (excluding HR) were not different between the 2 protocols.


The results of this study suggest that both the 7-ST and MAOD test protocols are comparable with regard to the measurement of VO2peak and LT2 in highly trained sprint kayak athletes. However, since differences in the measures of distance traveled, power, stroke rate, HR, BLa, and RPE were reported in the maximal stage of the these 2 test protocols, their interchangeable use in a laboratory setting is not ideal if the data output is to be compared and contrasted over time.

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Stacy N. Scott, Cary M. Springer, Jennifer F. Oody, Michael S. McClanahan, Brittany D. Wiseman, Tyler J. Kybartas and Dawn P. Coe

Peak oxygen consumption (VO 2 peak) reflects the capability of the cardiorespiratory system to transport oxygen during strenuous exercise ( 22 ) and is an objective measure of youth aerobic fitness ( 23 ). Cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and

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Gordon J. Bell, Vicki Harber, Terra Murray, Kerry S. Courneya and Wendy Rodgers


Fitness and health variables were measured in 128 sedentary men and women randomly assigned to 6 months of fitness training (F), a walking program (W), or a control (C) group.


The F program gradually increased volume and intensity until 4 d/wk of training, at 70% of peak VO2 for 43 min/session was prescribed while the W group performed daily walking monitored with pedometers and increased until 10,000 steps×d−1 were prescribed. Total weekly energy expenditure was matched between the activity groups. The control group was asked to maintain their usual activity.


Body mass, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, resting HR were reduced in all groups after 6 months (P < .05). Fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and total cholesterol were similarly improved in all groups (P < .05). Blood pressure and HR decreased during submaximal exercise in all groups (P < .05) but rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was decreased only in the F group (P < .05). Only the F participants showed a significant increase in ventilatory threshold (VT; ~15%) and peak VO2 (~9%) after 6 months.


Supervised fitness training in previously sedentary adults produced greater improvements in submaximal RPE, BPsys, VT, and peak VO2 but not other fitness and health-related variables compared with a pedometer-based walking program matched for total energy cost.

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Maria C. Madueno, Vincent J. Dalbo, Joshua H. Guy, Kate E. Giamarelos, Tania Spiteri and Aaron T. Scanlan

sprints using the CODD approach. Methods Subjects Eight semiprofessional basketball players (male = 6; female = 2; age: 19.9 [1.5] y; stature: 183.0 [9.6] cm; body mass: 77.7 [16.9] kg; body fat: 11.8% [6.3%]; and peak oxygen consumption: 46.1 [7.6] mL·kg −1 ·min −1 ) were recruited for this study. All

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Fernando Naclerio, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Mar Larrosa, Aitor Centeno, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao and Diego Moreno-Pérez

peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 peak ) and maximal aerobic speed (MAS). Based on the available literature, we hypothesized that compared with an isoenergetic-only carbohydrate supplement, the postworkout ingestion of a carbohydrate–protein admixture would protect muscle mass and promote fat reduction

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Genevieve Fridlund Dunton, Margaret Schneider, Dan J. Graham and Dan M. Cooper

Cross-sectional research examined whether physical activity or physical fitness was more closely linked to physical self-concept in adolescent females ages 14 to 17 (N = 103, 63% Caucasian). Moderate physical activity and vigorous physical activity were measured through a 3-day physical activity recall. Physical fitness was assessed using highly accurate measures of peak oxygen consumption (via cycle ergometer) and percent body fat (via dual X-ray absorptiometer). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) assessed self-concept in 11 domains (e.g., health, endurance, appearance). Pearson’s correlations showed that vigorous physical activity was positively associated with scores on most of the PSDQ scales (p < .005). Peak oxygen consumption was positively related to all of the selfconcept domains (p < .001), and percent body fat was negatively related on most of the PSDQ scales (p < .005). Multiple-regression analyses found that physical fitness (i.e., peak oxygen consumption and percent body fat) was more closely related to physical self-concept than was physical activity. In addition to the possibility that genetically determined fitness levels may influence physical selfconcept, these findings suggest that programs designed to elevate self-perceptions may require physical activity levels sufficient to improve cardiovascular fitness and decrease body fat.