The aim of the present study was to locate the fastest 10-m split time (Splitbest) over a 40-m sprint in relation to age and maximal sprint speed in highly trained young soccer players. Analyses were performed on 967 independent player sprints collected in 223 highly trained young football players (Under 12 to Under 18). The maximal sprint speed was defined as the average running speed during Splitbest. The distribution of the distance associated with Splitbest was affected by age (X23 = 158.7, P < .001), with the older the players, the greater the proportion of 30-to-40-m Splitbest. There was, however, no between-group difference when data were adjusted for maximal sprint speed. Maximal sprint speed is the main determinant of the distance associated with Splitbest. Given the important disparity in Splitbest location within each age group, three (U12-U13) to two (U14-U18) 10-m intervals are still required to guarantee an accurate evaluation of maximal sprint speed in young players when using timing gates.
Martin Buchheit, Ben M. Simpson, Esa Peltola and Alberto Mendez-Villanueva
M. Jonathan King, Timothy David Noakes and Eugene Godfrey Weinberg
Twelve boys with atopic asthma, ages 9-14 years, were divided equally into exercise and control groups. Identical measurements were made before and after a 3-month trial period during which the exercise group was trained. The trained group, but not the control group, showed significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness including maximum oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) and peak running velocity during the maximal treadmill test (p<0.05). Treadmill velocity at the lactate tumpoint was greater and heart rate during submaximal exercise was lower in the trained subjects after the trial period. Subjective and objective findings (less use of medication, fewer asthmatic attacks, increased physical activity) suggested that clinical asthma improved with training. However exercise-induced asthma (EIA), measured by the airway’s response to a standardized treadmill run, did not alter with training.
Marc Sim, Brian Dawson, Grant Landers, Dorine W. Swinkels, Harold Tjalsma, Debbie Trinder and Peter Peeling
The effect of exercise modality and intensity on Interleukin-6 (IL-6), iron status, and hepcidin levels was investigated. Ten trained male triathletes performed 4 exercise trials including low-intensity continuous running (L-R), low-intensity continuous cycling (L-C), high-intensity interval running (H-R), and high-intensity interval cycling (H-C). Both L-R and L-C consisted of 40 min continuous exercise performed at 65% of peak running velocity (vVO2peak) and cycling power output (pVO2peak), while H-R and H-C consisted of 8 × 3-min intervals performed at 85% vVO2peak and pVO2peak. Venous blood samples were drawn pre-, post-, and 3 hr postexercise. Significant increases in postexercise IL-6 were seen within each trial (p < .05) and were significantly greater in H-R than L-R (p < .05). Hepcidin levels were significantly elevated at 3 hr postexercise within each trial (p < .05). Serum iron levels were significantly elevated (p < .05) immediately postexercise in all trials except L-C. These results suggest that, regardless of exercise mode or intensity, postexercise increases in IL-6 may be expected, likely influencing a subsequent elevation in hepcidin. Regardless, the lack of change in postexercise serum iron levels in L-C may indicate that reduced hemolysis occurs during weight-supported, low-intensity activity.
Cesar Gallo-Salazar, Juan Del Coso, David Sanz-Rivas and Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez
Purpose: To determine whether the game activity and physiological responses of young tennis players differed depending on the session of play (eg, morning [MOR] vs afternoon [AFT]) and the final match outcome (eg, winners vs losers) during a simulated competition with 2 matches on the same day. Methods: A total of 12 well-trained male tennis players (age 14.5 [0.8] y) took part in a simulated competition of two 3-set matches separated by 3 h. All the matches were video recorded, and the participants were monitored using 10-Hz global positioning system units including a heart-rate monitor. Effect-size (ES) statistics were used to investigate the magnitudes of the differences. Results: During the AFT matches, in absolute terms, players covered longer total distance (ES = moderate) and ran more distance between 0 and ≤4 m·s−1 (ES = small to large) than in MOR matches. Total duration was also longer (ES = large) in the AFT, where the rest time between rallies was also longer (ES = very large). Heart rate was similar during AFT and MOR matches, but higher rates of perceived exertion (ES = moderate) were reported in the AFT. Only peak running velocity was observed to be likely higher for losers than for winners (ES = small). Conclusions: Game activity and physiological responses of young tennis players differ when 2 consecutive matches are played on the same day. These data might help elucidate the need for specific precompetition training loads and/or between-matches/sessions recovery strategies when facing overloaded competitions.