the correctness of the technique execution. Physiological, Perceptual, and Performance Variables In all GETs and UK conf , the following variables were analyzed: peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 peak ), maximal HR (HR max ), peak blood lactate concentration [La peak ], maximal aerobic intensity (MAP
Seihati A. Shiroma, Ursula F. Julio and Emerson Franchini
Peter Pfitzinger and Patty Freedson
Part 1 reviews the literature concerning peak blood lactate responses to exercise in children. After a brief overview of lactate metabolism, an analysis is presented comparing children to adults regarding peak blood lactate concentration. Possible factors accounting for lower blood lactate concentrations during maximal exercise in children are considered.
Florian Engel, Sascha Härtel, Jana Strahler, Matthias Oliver Wagner, Klaus Bös and Billy Sperlich
This study aimed to determine the effects of a single high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session on salivary cortisol (SC) levels, physiological responses, and performance in trained boys and men. Twenty-three boys (11.5 ± 0.8 years) and 25 men (29.7 ± 4.6 years) performed HIIT (4 consecutive Wingate Anaerobic Tests). SC in boys and men increased after HIIT from 5.55 ± 3.3 nmol/l to 15.13 ± 9.7 nmol/l (+173%) and from 7.07 ± 4.7 nmol/l to 19.19 ± 12.7 nmol/l (+171%), respectively (p < .01). Pretest SC as well as posttest changes were comparable in both groups (both p < .01). Peak blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in boys (12.6 ± 3.5 mmol/l) than in men (16.3 ± 3.1 mmol/l; p < .01). Throughout the HIIT, mean heart rates in boys were higher (p < .001) but relative peak oxygen uptake (ml·min−1·kg−1; p < .05) and performance were lower (p < .001) in boys than in men. HIIT in young athletes is associated with a higher activation of the hormonal stress axis than other types of exercise regimes as described in the literature. This study is the first to show a pronounced SC increase to HIIT in trained boys accompanied by elevated levels of blood lactate concentrations and heart rate suggesting a high cardio-respiratory, metabolic, and hormonal response to HIIT in 11-year-old boys.
Shaun J. McLaren, Michael Graham, Iain R. Spears and Matthew Weston
To investigate the sensitivity of differential ratings of perceived exertion (dRPE) as measures of internal load.
Twenty-two male university soccer players performed 2 maximal incremental-exercise protocols (cycle, treadmill) on separate days. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), peak blood lactate concentration (B[La]peak), and the preprotocol-to-postprotocol change in countermovement-jump height (ΔCMJH) were measured for each protocol. Players provided dRPE (CR100) for breathlessness (RPE-B) and leg-muscle exertion (RPE-L) immediately on exercise termination (RPE-B0, RPE-L0) and 30 min postexercise (RPE-B30, RPE-L30). Data were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences.
There were clear between-protocols differences for V̇O2max (cycle 46.5 ± 6.3 vs treadmill 51.0 ± 5.1 mL · kg−1 · min−1, mean difference –9.2%; ±90% confidence limits 3.7%), HRmax (184.7 ± 12.7 vs 196.7 ± 7.8 beats/min, –6.0%; ±1.7%), B[La]peak (9.7 ± 2.1 vs 8.5 ± 2.0 mmol/L, 15%; ±10%), and ΔCMJH (–7.1 ± 4.2 vs 0.6 ± 3.6 cm, –23.2%; ±5.4%). Clear between-protocols differences were recorded for RPE-B0 (78.0 ± 11.7 vs 94.7 ± 9.5 AU, –18.1%; ±4.5%), RPE-L0 (92.6 ± 9.7 vs 81.3 ± 14.1 AU, 15.3%; ±7.6%), RPE-B30 (70 ± 11 vs 82 ± 13 AU, –13.8%; ±7.3%), and RPE-L30 (86 ± 12 vs 65 ± 19 AU, 37%; ±17%). A substantial timing effect was observed for dRPE, with moderate to large reductions in all scores 30 min postexercise compared with scores collected on exercise termination.
dRPE enhance the precision of internal-load measurement and therefore represent a worthwhile addition to training-load-monitoring procedures.
Mário A.M. Simim, Gustavo R. da Mota, Moacir Marocolo, Bruno V.C. da Silva, Marco Túlio de Mello and Paul S. Bradley
of match-play cause muscle phosphocreatine degradation, peak blood lactate concentrations of 10–14 mM, and HR reaching ∼95% HR max . Thus, this clearly provides evidence that the aerobic and anaerobic systems are highly taxed during selected periods of match-play ( Krustrup et al., 2006 ). This may
Matheus Hausen, Pedro Paulo Soares, Marcus Paulo Araujo, Débora Esteves, Hilbert Julio, Roberto Tauil, Marcus Junca, Flávia Porto, Emerson Franchini, Craig Alan Bridge and Jonas Gurgel
the iTKDet when compared with CPET ( F 2,22 = 14.3; P = .001; ES = 1.14 [large]). Similar peak blood lactate concentrations were elicited by the 3 exercise tests ( F 2,22 = 2.32; P = .12; ES = 0.46 [medium]). Time to exhaustion was similar between CPET and cTKDet, but both were significantly
Tatiane Piucco, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Rogério Soares, Juan M. Murias and Guillaume Y. Millet
·min −1 ) 148.5 ± 28.3 138.7 ± 22.4 a .87 b 0.41 6.6 [La] peak (mmol·L −1 ) 12.2 ± 2.3 9.3 ± 2.3 a .11 1.28 20.3 Abbreviations: [La] peak , peak blood lactate concentration; HR max , maximal heart hate; RER max , maximal respiratory exchange ratio; V ˙ E max , maximal ventilation; V ˙ O 2 max , maximal
Mònica Solana-Tramunt, Jose Morales, Bernat Buscà, Marina Carbonell and Lara Rodríguez-Zamora
.23 −.46 La peak , mmol/L .89* .61* Δ%Cortisol .41 Abbreviations: La peak , capillary peak blood lactate concentration during recovery; RPE, rating of perceived exertion; Δ%Cortisol, salivary cortisol changes expressed in percentage when comparing pre and post values; Δ%LnRMSSD, relative changes of
Pedro L. Valenzuela, Carlos Amo, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa
, respectively. Lactate concentration was measured with a portable lactate analyzer (Lactate Plus; Nova Biomedical, Waltham, MA). The peak blood lactate concentration observed after each test was used for statistical analyses. Mood state was assessed with the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) 18 immediately before and
Øyvind Skattebo, Thomas Losnegard and Hans Kristian Stadheim
exchange ratio; HR peak , peak heart rate; [La peak ], peak blood lactate concentration. Note: Superscript letters by the ESs denote their magnitude as T , trivial (ES < 0.2); S , small (0.2 ≤ ES < 0.6); M , moderate (0.6 ≤ ES < 1.2); and La , large (1.2 ≤ ES < 2.0). 23 Speed peak is the highest