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Iñigo Mujika, Luis Villanueva, Marijke Welvaert and David B. Pyne

and performance peak at their respective national qualification trials or within a time frame predetermined by their national federation. But, of course, attaining another performance peak allowing them to swim even faster at the major event is most often the main goal for every qualified swimmer and

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Kevin D. Dames, Jeremy D. Smith and Gary D. Heise

, is it better to select 1 peak from the average profile or take an average of peaks selected from each trial? Unfortunately, how peak values from multiple trials are chosen is inconsistent and/or unclear in the literature. For example, some researchers identified individual trial peaks from a

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Andy Gillham and Craig Stone

attributed 40–90% of their success in sport to mental factors. Anderson, Hanrahan, and Mallet ( 2014 ) highlighted that elite athletes constantly strive to achieve a superior state of psychological functioning in order to achieve peak performance. Krane and Williams ( 2006 ) noted that athletes report

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Neil Armstrong and Jo Welsman

Aerobic fitness defines the ability to deliver oxygen to the muscles and to use it to generate energy to support muscle activity during exercise. Peak oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 ), the highest V ˙ O 2 achieved during an incremental exercise test to exhaustion, is internationally recognized as the

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Paul A. Solberg, Will G. Hopkins, Gøran Paulsen and Thomas A. Haugen

, as powerful athletes such as sprinters, jumpers, and throwers typically reach peak performance in their mid to late 20s. 16 , 17 Recurring questions among practitioners and scientists are related to whether the changes in strength and power are truly age dependent or effects of training

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Tzu-Chieh Liao, Joyce H. Keyak and Christopher M. Powers

and running. 7 – 9 With respect to running, Wirtz et al 8 reported that persons with PFP demonstrated similar peak patellofemoral joint stress when compared with pain-free individuals. However, several limitations of the study by Wirtz et al 8 call into question the biofidelity of the findings. For

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Thomas A. Haugen, Paul A. Solberg, Carl Foster, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Felix Breitschädel and Will G. Hopkins

performance development in children, youth, and older (“masters”) athletes is well documented in research literature, 3 – 11 corresponding data for elite competitors in the years prior to and after the age of peak performance is more limited. A few scientific studies have investigated age of peak performance

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Stacy N. Scott, Cary M. Springer, Jennifer F. Oody, Michael S. McClanahan, Brittany D. Wiseman, Tyler J. Kybartas and Dawn P. Coe

Peak oxygen consumption (VO 2 peak) reflects the capability of the cardiorespiratory system to transport oxygen during strenuous exercise ( 22 ) and is an objective measure of youth aerobic fitness ( 23 ). Cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and

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Nathan Waite, John Goetschius and Jakob D. Lauver

skin-mounted accelerometers have been reported. 9 These accelerometers can be used as a proxy for impact forces via Newton’s second law and allow for assessments in real-world settings outside of the laboratory. The peak TA at foot contact can range from 2.98 to 10.5 g during various running

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Elroy J. Aguiar, John M. Schuna Jr., Tiago V. Barreira, Emily F. Mire, Stephanie T. Broyles, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William D. Johnson and Catrine Tudor-Locke

provide access to time-stamped data at higher resolutions, allowing for a detailed analysis of free-living ambulatory physical activity over smaller time frames, for example, cadence (steps accumulated in 1 min, steps/min). Peak 30-min cadence, a step-based physical activity index (i