in the use of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK; Shulman, 1987 ). PCK represents the epitome of the application of professional knowledge and the use of professional judgment. In the next section, we describe pertinent theoretical and empirical literature concerned with PCK that underpinned the
Insook Kim, Phillip Ward, Oleg Sinelnikov, Bomna Ko, Peter Iserbyt, Weidong Li and Matthew Curtner-Smith
Insook Kim and Bomna Ko
Content quiz scores 72 522 2 261 .46 .631 .013 SS = sum of the squares; MS = mean squares; PCK = pedagogical content knowledge. * p < .05 level. How do Student Performance Measures Enhanced by C-Exd Differ Before and After CK Training Compared With Those of C-Ext? The data from the descriptive analysis
Phillip Ward and Shiri Ayvazo
Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a frequently used concept in the educational community. Its usage is so widespread it appears to function as a “lingua franca” across different subject areas and among researchers within a subject area. Critiques of PCK have suggested it may function at best as a heuristic and at worst as a masquerade; because there has been little consensus on its conceptualization and in many studies there is no operational definition of PCK provided. Recent studies, however, have moved both the conceptualization and measurement of PCK forward in ways that allow the concept to be operationalized. In this article we examine how PCK has evolved since Shulman’s (1986) initial conceptualization, and discuss how the concept has been used in physical education. We describe and examine five recurring research findings for PCK in physical education. These are that PCK can be described on continuums of maturity and effectiveness; is learned, is specific to content and context; and is strongly related to both content knowledge and knowledge of students.
Although teachers’ knowledge of student emotion is not typically integrated into studies of teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge, this study uses the philosophy of emotion, recent teacher knowledge research, and a case study of one middle-school physical education teacher to illustrate the point that how teachers understand student emotion is inextricably linked to their thinking and decisions about educational content, curriculum, and pedagogy. Data were collected during 4 months of observations and interviews and were analyzed using constant comparison. Three themes are used to show how this teacher’s interpretations of student emotion influenced her selecting, ordering, and formulating of curriculum units, her pedagogical maneuvering during lessons to facilitate learning, and her interactions with individual students and groups of students. The discussion centers on the need to expand current conceptions of teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge, and the importance of emotional understanding in teaching. Future directions for research into emotion and teaching are suggested.
Inez Rovegno, Weiyun Chen and John Todorovich
The purpose of this study was to describe four accomplished teachers’ enacted pedagogical content knowledge of teaching hand dribbling to third grade children. We aimed to investigate and make accessible the knowledge and wisdom of practicing teachers. We videotaped three sequential lessons of each teacher and conducted formal and informal interviews. Three themes emerged from a grounded analysis of the data: (a) approaching dribbling content as a network of connected movements and tactics, (b) refining movement patterns based on knowledge initially acquired in younger grades, and (c) teaching the cognitive processes (learning orientation, self-regulation, movement and tactical analysis and critique, and making decisions) embedded in and relevant to lesson dribbling activities.
This study describes and interprets (a) a student teacher’s decisions about task content and content progression across an elementary and high school sport unit and (b) those aspects of his pedagogical content knowledge that he used to explain and justify his decisions. The student teacher’s pedagogical content knowledge of dividing and sequencing subject matter can be summarized briefly: first, tell about the biomechanically efficient body position, and second, play games. Both the student teacher’s decisions and pedagogical content knowledge and guidelines for content progression that are in the curriculum literature are interpreted by using broad theoretical perspectives of knowledge and learning that pervade educational thought. Taken-for-granted perspectives that knowledge and learning are molecular are questioned, and the potential of more holistic, nonlinear perspectives is considered.
Nate McCaughtry and Inez Rovegno
This study used developmental theory to examine changes in four preservice physical education teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge during a 20- lesson middle school volleyball unit. Participant observation methodology was used including interviews, field observations, and document analysis. Data were analyzed using constant comparison. Three main shifts in their knowledge were identified. First, the teachers moved from poorly predicting students’ skillfulness and blaming students when those predictions caused problems, to valuing the matching of tasks to students’ skill levels. Second, they understood motor development differently as their inability to recognize skill development caused problems in helping students learn, and they were then mentored by experienced teachers to better see and facilitate learning. Third, the preservice teachers grew to respect and emphasize student emotion in teaching, realizing that overlooking emotion led to problems in teaching. The discussion focuses on common pitfalls in teacher development and the need for attention to emotion in the research on teacher knowledge.
Content in physical education has been the subject of research for some years, with most studies being carried out under two scientific programs. One, in North America, concerned primarily with pedagogical content knowledge; the other, in France, studying the didactics of physical education. The purpose of this paper is to describe the theoretical framework, methodology, and principal results of these programs. It examines their similarities, differences, and the contribution of each to the teaching and learning of content in physical education. Researchers in both fields state that pedagogical content in physical education (a) is highly domain-specific to the activity being taught. (b) falls within an analysis of the situated-action, (c) undergoes long-term evolution in relation to professional competence, and (d) depends on constraints inherent in the system. Beyond the specifics of each program, there are some similarities that open up possibilities for fruitful collaboration between researchers in the two communities.
Kim C. Graber
The purpose of this study was to (a) examine how student teachers believed they incorporated general pedagogical knowledge into lessons, (b) examine how student teachers believed they incorporated pedagogical content knowledge into lessons, and (c) examine the beliefs held by student teachers regarding those elements of their teacher education program that most directly guided their practice. Twenty student teachers, 7 teacher educators, and 8 cooperating teachers were interviewed. Data were analyzed and grouped into themes. The results indicate that the degree to which students incorporated general pedagogical knowledge into teaching was contingent on the placement setting, support of the cooperating teacher, influence of pupils, and level the student teacher was teaching. Student teachers had greater difficulty incorporating pedagogical content knowledge. The student teachers from one university all believed they were primarily influenced by one particular teacher educator. A single powerful individual may be more important in shaping preservice student beliefs than an entire program of courses and experiences.
Phillip Ward, Emi Tsuda, Fatih Dervent and Erhan Devrilmez
, W. ( 2017 ). Effects of improved content knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge and student performance in physical education . Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 22 , 71 – 88 . doi:10.1080/17408989.2015.1095868 10.1080/17408989.2015.1095868 Kim , I. , Lee , Y.S. , Ward , P