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Kelly R. Evenson, Semra A. Aytur, Sara B. Satinsky, Zachary Y. Kerr and Daniel A. Rodríguez


We surveyed North Carolina (NC) municipalities to document the presence of municipal walking- and bicycling-related projects, programs, and policies; to describe whether prevalence of these elements differed if recommended in a plan; and to characterize differences between urban and rural municipalities.


We surveyed all municipalities with ≥ 5000 persons (n = 121) and sampled municipalities with < 5000 persons (216/420), with a response rate of 54% (183/337). Responses were weighted to account for the sampling design.


From a list provided, staff reported on their municipality’s use of walking- and bicycling-related elements (8 infrastructure projects, 9 programs, and 14 policies). The most commonly reported were projects on sidewalks (53%), streetscape improvements (51%), bicycle/walking paths (40%); programs for cultural/recreational/health (25%), general promotional activities (24%), Safe Routes to School (24%), and law enforcement (24%); and policies on maintenance (64%), new facility construction (57%), and restricted automobile speed or access (45%). Nearly all projects, programs, or policies reported were more likely if included in a plan and more prevalent in urban than rural municipalities.


These results provide cross-sectional support that plans facilitate the implementation of walking and bicycling elements, and that rural municipalities plan and implement these elements less often than urban municipalities.

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Margaret McGladrey, Angela Carman, Christy Nuetzman and Nicole Peritore

programming. The workshops involved creating trail linkage designs by taking walking tours and reviewing community maps that resulted in a comprehensive bicycle and pedestrian plan. Extension also led the Clinton EPHECT in conversations with the Transportation Cabinet regarding traffic calming and reverse

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Meera Sreedhara, Karin Valentine Goins, Christine Frisard, Milagros C. Rosal and Stephenie C. Lemon

strategies were not identified. 15 In addition, most such policies have no implementation plan. Among 89.0% of US municipalities reporting having any type of community plan (ie, comprehensive/general, land use, transportation or bicycle/pedestrian plans), 53.9% reported street connectivity objectives, and