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Tina Smith, Sue Reeves, Lewis G. Halsey, Jörg Huber and Jin Luo

used to quantitatively assess these factors in physical activity, including questionnaires, pedometers, and accelerometers. Among these methods, self-report questionnaires and pedometers are convenient ones to use. Both methods have been employed in studies reporting positive associations between

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Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Manoel Carlos Spiguel de Lima, Luis Alberto Gobbo, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, Marcelo Romanzini, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

. Initially, 320 adults started the study, but 95 were excluded due to incomplete data (wearing pedometer for less than 7 d) and death (n = 1). The final sample consisted of 225 subjects with valid information (108 men and 117 women). In this sample, there are no missing data. Dependent Variables Dual

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Anders Raustorp and Andreas Fröberg

accelerometers and pedometers have gained popularity among PA researchers as they are convenient, unobtrusive, and relatively unbiased. 9 Some studies employing ActiGraph™ accelerometers have reported a low to moderate tracking of PA between age 5 and 15. 10 , 11 The lack of standardization in processing

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Andrea L. Hergenroeder, Bethany Barone Gibbs, Mary P. Kotlarczyk, Subashan Perera, Robert J. Kowalsky and Jennifer S. Brach

the Fitbit Charge (Fitbit Inc., San Francisco, CA); Garmin Vivofit (Garmin Ltd., Schaffhausen, Switzerland); Fitbit Zip (Fitbit Inc., San Francisco, CA); Yamax SW-200 Digiwalker Pedometer (Yamasa Tokei Keiki Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan); Accusplit AX2710 Accelerometer Pedometer (Accusplit, Inc., Livermore

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Jocelyn Kernot, Lucy Lewis, Tim Olds and Carol Maher

computer-generated allocation sequence ( http://www.randomizer.org/form.htm ) with allocation concealment to one of 3 conditions: (1) MSIU (intervention), (2) pedometer (alternative intervention), or (3) written advice (control). Block randomization was undertaken (blocks of 6, allocation ratio 1∶1∶1) to

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Charlotte L. Edwardson, Melanie Davies, Kamlesh Khunti, Thomas Yates and Alex V. Rowlands

and competition. These features, along with the relatively low cost of the activity trackers and the design, make them particularly appealing to researchers as alternative tools to the waist worn pedometer commonly used in physical activity behavior change research (e.g., Kang, Marshall, Barreira

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Lorraine S. Wallace, Kenneth Bielak and Brian Linn

Background:

We evaluated readability and related features of English-language instructions accompanying pedometers, including reading grade level, layout/formatting characteristics, and emphasis of key points.

Methods:

We identified 15 pedometers currently available for purchase in the US. Reading grade level was calculated using Flesch-Kinkaid (FK) and SMOG formulas. Text point size was measured with a C-Thru Ruler. Page and illustration dimensions were measured to the nearest millimeter (mm) with a standard ruler. Layout features were evaluated using the criteria from the User-Friendliness Tool.

Results:

FK scores ranged from 8th to 11th grade, while SMOG scores ranged from 8th to 12th grade. Text point size averaged 6.9 ± 1.9 (range = 4−11). Instructions averaged 8.7 ± 9.0 (range = 0−36) illustrations, most about the size of a US quarter. While many instructions avoided use of specialty fonts (n = 12; 80.0%), most used a minimal amount of white space. Just 4 (26.7%) sets of instructions highlighted the target goal of 10,000 steps-per-day.

Conclusion:

Pedometer instructions should be revised to meet the recommended 6th grade reading level. Paper size instructions are printed on should be enlarged, thereby allowing for larger text and illustrations, and additional white space. Recommended number of steps per day and proper pedometer positioning should also be predominantly highlighted.

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Michael W. Beets, John T. Foley, Daniel W.S. Tindall and Lauren J. Lieberman

Thirty-five youth with visual impairments (13.5 ± 2.1yrs, 13 girls and 22 boys) walked four 100-meter distances while wearing two units (right and left placement) of three brands of voice-announcement (VA) pedometers (CentriosTM Talking Pedometer, TALKiNG Pedometer, and Sportline Talking Calorie Pedometer 343) and a reference pedometer (NL2000). Registered pedometer steps for each trial were recorded, compared to actual steps assessed via digital video. Inter-unit agreement between right and left VA pedometer placement was low (ICC range .37 to .76). A systematic error was observed for the VA pedometers on the left placement (error range 5.6% to 12.2%), while right placement VA pedometers were at or below ± 3% from actual steps (range 2.1% to 3.3%). The reference pedometer was unaffected by placement (ICC .98, error ~1.4%). Overall, VA pedometers demonstrated acceptable accuracy for the right placement, suggesting this position is necessary for youth with visual impairments.

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Albert R. Mendoza, Kate Lyden, John Sirard, John Staudenmayer, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Patty S. Freedson

, Chansin, & Zervos, 2017 ). Of the numerous wearable activity tracker manufacturers, Fitbit was the leading brand of activity tracker in 2015, accounting for 79 percent of sales ( NPD, 2016 ). The enormous market for wearable activity trackers and pedometers (ATPs) is driven in part by lower cost, longer

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Guy C. Le Masurier, Aaron Beighle, Charles B. Corbin, Paul W. Darst, Charles Morgan, Robert P. Pangrazi, Bridgette Wilde and Susan D. Vincent

Background:

The purpose of this study was to describe the pedometer-determined physical activity levels of American youth.

Methods:

A secondary analysis of six existing data sets including 1839 (1046 females, 793 males; ages 6 to 18) school-aged, predominantly white subjects from the southwest US. Grade clusters for elementary (grades 1 to 3), upper elementary (grades 4 to 6), middle school (grades 7 to 9), and high school (grades 10 to 12) were created for statistical analysis.

Results:

Males in grades 1 to 3 and 4 to 6 accumulated significantly more steps/d (13,110 ± 2870 and 13,631 ± 3463, respectively; P < 0.001) than males in grades 7 to 9 and 10 to 12 (11,082 ± 3437 and 10,828 ± 3241). Females in grades 1 to 3 and 4 to 6 accumulated significantly more steps/d (11,120 ± 2553 and 11,125 ± 2923; P < 0.001) than females in grades 7 to 9 and 10 to 12 (10,080 ± 2990 and 9706 ± 3051).

Conclusions:

Results are consistent with those reported for other objective assessments of youth activity indicating that males are typically more active than females and physical activity is less prevalent among secondary school youth than those in elementary school. Pedometer-determined physical activity levels of youth, including secondary school youth, are higher than reported for adult populations.