The influence of the peer group on young people’s achievement motivation has been highlighted in the literature as an area that needs examination (e.g., Harwood & Swain, 2001). To this effect, a new measure of youngsters’ perceptions of the peer motivational climate (Peer Motivational Climate in Youth Sport Questionnaire; PeerMCYSQ) was developed and tested across three studies. In Study 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) with 431 athletes between the ages of 11 to 16 years suggested that the PeerMCYSQ had 6 factors that could also be subsumed into 2 higher order factors (Task-Involving climate: improvement, relatedness support, effort; Ego-Involving climate: intra-team competition, normative ability, intra-team conflict). In Studies 2 and 3 the 6-factor solution and the corresponding hierarchical one were tested using CFA with two independent samples (N = 606 and 495, respectively) of similar age. The results showed that the 6-factor model was problematic and that a 5-factor solution should be preferred instead. Further support to the 5-factor model was provided with hierarchical and multilevel CFAs. Suggestions for further research on peer motivational climate are discussed.
Nikos Ntoumanis and Spiridoula Vazou
Katherine A. Tamminen, Patrick Gaudreau, Carolyn E. McEwen and Peter R.E. Crocker
Efforts to regulate emotions can influence others, and interpersonal emotion regulation within teams may affect athletes’ own affective and motivational outcomes. We examined adolescent athletes’ (N = 451, N teams = 38) self- and interpersonal emotion regulation, as well as associations with peer climate, sport enjoyment, and sport commitment within a multilevel model of emotion regulation in teams. Results of multilevel Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that athletes’ self-worsening emotion regulation strategies were negatively associated with enjoyment while other-improving emotion regulation strategies were positively associated enjoyment and commitment. The team-level interpersonal emotion regulation climate and peer motivational climates were also associated with enjoyment and commitment. Team-level factors moderated some of the relationships between athletes’ emotion regulation with enjoyment and commitment. These findings extend previous research by examining interpersonal emotion regulation within teams using a multilevel approach, and they demonstrate the importance of person- and team-level factors for athletes’ enjoyment and commitment.
Ashley M. Duguay, Todd M. Loughead and Krista J. Munroe-Chandler
The purpose of the current study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a season-long athlete leadership development program. Participants were 27 female varsity athletes who participated in four leadership workshops throughout the season, each 1 hr in duration. All of the participants completed inventories measuring leadership behaviors, cohesion, communication, athlete satisfaction, and peer motivational climate. Overall, the results showed significant differences in regards to leadership behaviors, athlete satisfaction, and peer motivational climate from pre- to postintervention. Further, follow-up focus groups were also conducted to assess the social validity of the leadership development program. These focus groups revealed important insight into program structure, influence of the program, leadership challenges, and suggestions for future improvements. These findings provide researchers, sport psychology consultants, and coaches with important information regarding the effectiveness of this athlete leadership development program in targeting human and social capital development.
Alan L. Smith
collectives rather than more overt social groupings that sometimes are applied to young people—the jocks, populars, nerds, Goths, and so forth. More specifically, in this section I discuss the peer motivational climate that is perceived by young people, as well as how distinct peer relationship perceptions
Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson
by the coach; but, recently, studies have examined the influence of peers to find the same pattern of results. One unanswered issue in this literature is whether the peer motivational climate in sport contributes to broader character attributes, such as diligence, leadership, and honesty. The authors
Maureen R. Weiss
peer influence in sport settings have especially multiplied in recent years, extending to topics such as peer motivational climate and leadership behaviors ( Gould, 2016 ; A.L. Smith et al., 2019 ; Vazou, Ntoumanis, & Duda, 2005 ). Consistent findings across motivational theories show that (a
Brennan Petersen, Mark Eys, Kody Watson and M. Blair Evans
cooperation (perceptions that members act in a manner that is mutually beneficial) 5 1 4 peer motivational climate (peer-derived competitive orientation across group) 5 5 0 norms (generalized expectations for behaviors of all members of a group) 5 5 0 interdependence (manner in which group members rely on
Ali Al-Yaaribi and Maria Kavussanu
.1080/10413200.2016.1190423 10.1080/10413200.2016.1190423 Ntoumanis , N. , & Vazou , S. ( 2005 ). Peer motivational climate in youth sport: Measurement development and validation . Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 27 , 432 – 455 . doi:10.1123/jsep.27.4.432 10.1123/jsep.27.4.432 Preacher , K.J. , & Hayes , A
Esmie P. Smith, Andrew P. Hill and Howard K. Hall
.05.004 Smith , A.L. , Gustafsson , H. , & Hassmen , P. ( 2010 ). Peer motivational climate and burnout perceptions of adolescent athletes . Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 11 , 453 – 460 . doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.05.007 10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.05.007 Smith , M.M , Sherry , S.B. , Rnic
Ralph Appleby, Paul Davis, Louise Davis and Henrik Gustafsson
. , & Hassmén , P. ( 2010 ). Peer motivational climate and burnout perceptions of adolescent athletes . Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11 ( 6 ), 453 – 460 . doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.05.007 10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.05.007 Smith , R.E. ( 1986 ). Towards a cognitive-affective model of athletic