This article addresses the issue of instructional guidance in reciprocal peer tutoring with task cards as learning tools. Eighty-six Kinesiology students (age 17–19 years) were randomized across four reciprocal peer tutoring settings, differing in quality and quantity of guidance, to learn Basic Life Support (BLS) with task cards. The separate and combined effect of two instructional guidance variables, role switching and role definition, was investigated on learning outcomes. In all settings student pairs were given 20 min to learn BLS. Individual student performance was measured before (baseline), immediately after (intervention) and two weeks later (retention). Repeated ANOVA showed strong learning gains but no significant differences between groups for total BLS scores. However, at retention significantly more students from the most guided condition remembered and consequently performed all BLS skills. It is concluded that guidance comprising role switching and role definition enhances skill retention in reciprocal peer tutoring with task cards.
Peter Iserbyt, Jan Elen, and Daniël Behets
Cathy Houston-Wilson, John M. Dunn, Hans van der Mars, and Jeffrey McCubbin
The effect of untrained and trained peer tutors on the motor performance of students with developmental disabilities in integrated physical education classes was studied. This study used a single-subject delayed multiple baseline design across six participants (5 boys and 1 girl, ages 9 to 11) with developmental disabilities. Six typically developing peers served as peer tutors. The ability to perform critical elements of fundamental motor skills was the dependent variable. Students were assigned to one of two protocols. Protocol 1 consisted of three conditions: baseline, assistance by an untrained peer tutor, and assistance by a trained peer tutor. Protocol 1 revealed that trained peer tutors were effective at assisting participants to improve their motor performance while untrained peer tutors were not. Protocol 2, which consisted only of a baseline and trained, peer tutoring, was used to replicate and provide additional support for the effect of trained peer tutors. Results revealed that trained peer tutors were effective at assisting participants to improve their motor performance in integrated physical education classes.
Lauren J. Lieberman, John M. Dunn, Hans Van der Mars, and Jeff McCubbin
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of trained peer tutors on the physical activity levels of deaf students1 in inclusive elementary physical education classes. A single subject delayed multiple baseline design across 8 deaf participants (4 boys and 4 girls) ages 10 to 12 was used. Eight typically developing, trained peers of the same age and gender served as peer tutors following training in use of sign language and basic teaching strategies. The dependent variable was moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) determined by McKenzie, Sallis and Nader’s (1991) System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT). The study included 3–4 sessions of baseline, 11–14 sessions of intervention, and 1–3 sessions of maintenance. Results revealed that after the introduction of peer tutoring, deaf students increased their MVPA from to 22% to 41.5%, and peer tutors increased their MVPA from 19% to 37.9%.
Gail E. Webster
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of peer tutors on the academic learning time (ALT) of moderately/severely mentally handicapped students in adapted physical education. A multiple baseline-across-students and withdrawal design was used to analyze the effects of untrained and trained tutors on the ALT–PE of the students. Motor appropriate behavior was documented with the ALT–PE observation system (Siedentop, Tousignant, & Parker, 1982). Data were analyzed by visual inspection. It was concluded that the presence of peer tutors appeared to have a positive effect on the ALT–PE of mentally handicapped students. No differences were evident between untrained and trained tutors with respect to ALT–PE.
Pascal Legrain, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, and Christophe Gernigon
This study examined the potential benefits of a peer tutoring program for tutors in a physical learning setting. Gender differences were also explored. Thirty-two college-age males and females identified as novices in a French boxing task were assigned in a 2 × 2, Gender × Training Type: Physical Practice (PP) versus Physical Practice associated with Peer Tutoring (PT) factorial design. All the participants were given six 2-hr French boxing lessons. The PT program included 6 min of peer coaching per lesson. Results indicated that the PT program entailed higher scores in boxing performance form, selfefficacy, interest-enjoyment, and personally controllable causal attributions and lower scores in tension-pressure. Males reported more certain expectancies and displayed higher performance outcomes than did females. Results are discussed in relation to the educational psychology literature.
Aija Klavina and Martin E. Block
This study assessed the effect of peer tutoring on physical, instructional, and social interaction behaviors between elementary school age students with severe and multiple disabilities (SMD) and peers without disabilities. Additional measures addressed the activity time of students with SMD. The study was conducted in inclusive general physical education settings under three instructional support conditions for students with SMD: (a) teacher-directed, (b) peer-mediated, and (c) voluntary peer support. During peer-mediated and voluntary peer support conditions, the instructional and physical interaction behaviors between students with SMD and their peers increased, while social interactions remained low. The activity engagement time data increased for all target students throughout intervention sessions. Interactions between students with SMD and teachers decreased toward the end of intervention.
Phillip Ward and Shiri Ayvazo
Researchers, textbooks authors, and educational policy makers recommend peer tutoring as an inclusion strategy for students with autism. However, there is little, if any, research supporting these recommendations in physical education. We assessed the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) in teaching catching skills to two typically developing peers and two children diagnosed with autism in kindergarten. A single subject withdrawal design assessed the effects of CWPT on total catches and correct catches. Results show that CWPT improved total and correct catches for the two students with autism. The results for the typically developing peers were mixed. These findings, while requiring further research, provide initial evidence to support CWPT as an inclusion strategy for children with autism in physical education.
Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, Christophe Gernigon, Marie-Laure Huet, Marielle Cadopi, and Fayda Winnykamen
Based on Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development and its concept of zone of proximal development, this study examined how the skill level of a peer tutor affects the achievement motivation of novice learners and their performance in a swimming task. Gender differences were also explored. High school students (N = 48) were assigned in a 2 × 3 (Gender × Tutor skill level: novice vs. intermediate vs. skilled) factorial design. Participants were invited to observe a same-sex peer tutor, complete a self-efficacy questionnaire, train with their tutor for 8 minutes, and complete a goal involvement questionnaire. Results demonstrated that skilled tutors yielded the best swimming skills for boys, whereas skilled and intermediate tutors yielded better skills than did novice tutors for girls. The skilled tutor group led to higher self-efficacy for improvement and gave more demonstrations and verbal information than did the novice group. Male tutees adopted higher ego involvement goals and trained more physically, whereas female tutees adopted higher learning goals and received more demonstrations and verbal instructions. Results are discussed in relation to educational studies conducted in a Vygotskian perspective.
Melissa Johnson and Phillip Ward
Traditional approaches to instruction in physical education have focused on the teacher to provide feedback and assess student learning. In contrast, classwide peer tutoring in physical education (CWPT-PE) uses peers to help provide feedback and assessment. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to assess the effects of CWPT-PE on (a) number of total trials, (b) number and percentage of correct trials, and (c) teacher’s organization of lesson time. Also assessed was the extent to which students could accurately discriminate each other’s performance. Participants were 11 children in third grade who participated in a 20-lesson striking unit. Results show that during the intervention the children performed fewer total trials, generally more correct trials, and had a higher percentage of correct trials than during baseline. Moreover, the CWPT-PE intervention was similarly effective for lower and higher skilled girls. The teacher’s organization of lesson time remained mostly unaffected by the intervention. Finally, students accurately determined each other’s performance more than 90% of the time.
Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, Christophe Gernigon, Marie-Laure Huet, Fayda Winnykamen, and Marielle Cadopi
The purposes of this study were to qualitatively analyze peer interaction in dyads practicing a swimming skill, and to examine the potential dyad type-by-gender differences in observed peer interaction modes. Sixty-four senior high school students (32 M, 32 F) trained for 8 min either in symmetrical (same competence) or asymmetrical (different competence levels) same-sex dyads. The numbers of attempts and performance scores were also documented for novices. The observed peer interaction modes consisted of guidance-tutoring, imitation, cooperation, and parallel activity. Multivariate and univariate analyses revealed that tutoring and imitation were manifested more in asymmetrical dyads, while cooperation and parallel activity were more frequent in symmetrical dyads. Males in symmetrical dyads displayed the most parallel activity. Males carried out more attempts than females. Regarding performance, males in asymmetrical dyads benefited more from training than the other groups did. Similarities and differences with findings observed in the academic domain are discussed.