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Gender Categorizations During Group Work in Physical Education

Jeroen Koekoek and Annelies Knoppers

expectations they have for their peers and the (gendered) meanings they assign to collaborative work ( Barker et al., 2015 ). Research that focuses on the effects of group work suggests that social interactions in PE have a significant influence on how children perceive their learning during classes ( Barker

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Teammate Relationships, Loneliness, and the Motivational and Well-Being Experiences of Adolescent Athletes

Christine E. Pacewicz and Alan L. Smith

teammates) who interact with athletes. Teammates (i.e., peers) play a significant role in athletes’ motivational experiences in sport by way of their interpersonal exchanges ( Smith, Pacewicz, & Raedeke, 2019 ; Smith & Ullrich-French, 2020 ). Such exchanges among individuals (i.e., friendships) as well as

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Sources of Activity-Related Social Support and Adolescents’ Objectively Measured After-School and Weekend Physical Activity: Gender and Age Differences

Charlotte Louise Edwardson, Trish Gorely, Natalie Pearson, and Andrew Atkin


To progress physical activity (PA) social support research using objective measures of PA, attention should be turned to specific segments of the day (eg, after school or weekends) in which young people spend the majority of their time with parents or friends. Furthermore, the majority of previous research has focused on the influence of parents and peers. The current study examined gender and age differences in 5 sources of activity-related social support and their relationship with objectively measured after-school and weekend PA among adolescents.


328 adolescents aged 12–16 years (57% boys) wore an accelerometer for 7 days and completed a questionnaire assessing support for PA. After-school and weekend PA were extracted.


Adolescents perceived more support from their peers compared with other sources and boys perceived more peer support than girls. Younger adolescents perceived greater amounts of family support and explicit modeling from both mother and father; however, logistic support appeared constant throughout adolescence. After controlling for gender and age, peer support was a significant influence on after-school MVPA.


Findings suggest that there may be benefit in encouraging adolescents to participate in PA in the after-school period with their peers.

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Friendship Quality in Youth Sport: Relationship to Age, Gender, and Motivation Variables

Maureen R. Weiss and Alan L. Smith

The purpose of this study was to examine age and gender differences in the quality of sport friendship, assess the relationship between friendship quality and motivation related variables, and obtain additional support for the validity of the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS; Weiss & Smith, 1999). Tennis players (N = 191, ages 10–18 years) completed the SFQS and other measures salient to the questions of the study. A MANOVA revealed that adolescent athletes ages 14–18 years rated loyalty and intimacy, things in common, and conflict higher than did younger players, ages 10–13 years, who in turn rated companionship and pleasant play higher. Girls rated self-esteem enhancement and supportiveness, loyalty and intimacy, and things in common higher than did boys, who rated conflict higher. Regression analysis indicated that companionship and pleasant play, conflict resolution, and things in common predicted higher tennis enjoyment and commitment. The collective findings—confirmation of the SFQS six-factor structure, relationships between sport friendship quality dimensions and peer acceptance, and relationships of sport friendship quality dimensions with Harter’s (1988) close friendship measure—support the validity of the SFQS.

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Engaging Axiology: Enabling Meaningful Transdisciplinary Collaboration in Adapted Physical Activity

Danielle Peers

knowledges of different people (e.g., the knowledge of the athlete; Howe, 2008 ; Peers, 2012 ; see also Andrews, 2000 ). Thus, at the heart of poststructuralist research is the argument that all seemingly objective knowledge and universal truths are instead deeply influenced by axiological assumptions

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Direct and Indirect Effects of Social Support on Youth Physical Activity Behavior

Pedro Silva, Ryan Lott, Jorge Mota, and Greg Welk

Social support (SS) from parents and peers are key reinforcing factors in the Youth Physical Activity Promotion (YPAP) model. This study aims to identify the relative contribution of parental and peer SS on youth participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Participants included 203 high school students (n = 125 girls; mean age 14.99 ± 1.55 years). MVPA was assessed by accelerometry. SS influences were evaluated using a well-established scale. Structural equation modeling measured (AMOS, Version 19) the relative fit of the YPAP models using both parental and peer SS. Parental SS had significant associations with both predisposing factors, enjoyment (β = .62, p < .01), and self-efficacy (β= .32, p < .01), as well a direct effect on MVPA (β = .30, p < .01). Peer SS had direct effect on MVPA (β = .33, p < .05), also significantly influenced levels of enjoyment (β = .47, p < .01) and self-efficacy (β = .67, p < .01). In both models self-efficacy mediated the influence on MVPA. The direct effects for parents and peers were similar. This demonstrates that both parental and peer social support exert a strong influence on adolescent MVPA.

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The Peer Experience for Older People Encouraging Other Older People to Engage in Resistance Training: A Qualitative Study

Paige M. Watkins, Elissa Burton, and Anne-Marie Hill

RT which included lack of social support, such as not knowing anyone at the gym or having no one to go with ( Burton, Farrier, Lewin, et al., 2017 ). A possible solution to these barriers may be the use of peer support to encourage older people to engage in and sustain their participation in RT

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Peer Behavioral Coaching: Soccer

David B. Rush and Teodoro Ayllon

Behavioral coaching has recently been found effective in developing a variety of sports skills in children, adolescents, and adults. These studies have relied on adult coaches using various behavioral techniques to develop sports skills. The present study attempted to extend these findings by substituting a peer coach for an experienced coach. The subjects were nine boys, ages 8 to 10, identified by the head coach as being deficit in three soccer skills: heading the ball, throw-ins, and goal kicking. The effects of a conventional form of coaching was compared to the behavioral one when each was conducted by the peer coach. The behavioral method included: (a) systematic use of verbal instructions and feedback, (b) positive and negative reinforcement, (c) positive practice, and (d) time out. A multiple baseline design across individuals, a reversal, and a changing criterion design were employed to evaluate the behavioral method. The results show a two- or threefold increase in soccer skill performance when behavioral coaching was used. The results were consistent for all nine players. The peer coach was found to be an effective instructor and trainer, thus demonstrating the versatility of the behavioral coaching method and the usefulness of a peer coach in extending the efforts of the head coach.

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A Case for Peer-Focused Efforts to Understand and Promote Physical Activity in Young People

Alan L. Smith

realize with a deeper understanding of peers and physical activity. Peers are most often considered individuals of similar age and developmental status who possess relatively equivalent social standing or power in an interaction context or group (see Santos & Vaughn, 2018 ; Smith, Mellano, & Ullrich

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Staying Strong Together: Older People Engaging in Resistance Training With a Peer

Paige Watkins, Anne-Marie Hill, Ian K. Thaver, and Elissa Burton

participating in RT, including a risk of pain, injury, or illness; having insufficient knowledge; or not having anyone to go with. A potential strategy to overcome these barriers is the use of peer support to promote engagement in RT programs. A peer is a like-minded individual, usually of a similar age, who