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Lumbar-Disk Herniations: Conservative Clinical Applications

Katherine Kolar

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Strength and Flexibility Characteristics of Athletes with Chronic Low-Back Pain

Kathleen J. Ashmen, C. Buz Swanik, and Scott M. Lephart

The purpose of this study was to identify strength and flexibility deficits in subjects with chronic low-back pain (CLBP). Subjects were 16 female Division I athletes: 8 athletes who had experienced CLBP for at least 6 months prior to testing and a control group of 8 matched subjects. Athletes with neurological symptoms, previous back operations, and leg length discrepancies and those who were diagnosed with scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, or spondylolysis were excluded from this study. Variables assessed included abdominal strength, erector spinae endurance, hip flexion and extension endurance, torso lateral flexibility, and low-back flexibility. Strength and endurance were calculated as a function of time in seconds. Goniometric measurements were used to determine flexibility. Significant mean differences were found by using dependent t tests for abdominal strength, erector Spinae endurance, hip extension, and right lateral flexion of the torso. The results validate the necessity for pelvic stabilization and indicate that strength and flexibility deficits vary among populations.

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Ultrasound Assessment of Adductor Muscle Size Using Muscle Thickness of the Thigh

Madoka Ogawa, Naotoshi Mitsukawa, Michael G. Bemben, and Takashi Abe


Previous studies investigated the relationship between ultrasound-derived anatomical muscle thickness (MTH) and individual muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle volume in several limb and trunk muscles; however, the adductor muscle that contributes to hip adduction and pelvic stabilization, as well as balance ability, has not been studied.


To examine the relationship between MTH of the lower, middle, and upper thigh measured by B-mode ultrasound and the muscle CSA and volume of adductor muscle obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the possibility of predicting adductor muscle CSA/volume using ultrasound-derived MTH.


University research laboratory.


10 men and 10 women (20–41 y old) volunteered to participate in this study.

Main Outcome Measures:

A series of continuous muscle CSAs along the thigh were measured by MRI scans (1.5-T scanner, GE Signa). In each slice, the anatomical CSA of the adductors was analyzed, and the muscle volume was calculated by multiplying muscle CSA by slice thickness. Thigh MTH was measured by B-mode ultrasound (Aloka SSD-500) at 5 sites (anterior 30%, 50%, and 70% and posterior 50% and 70% of thigh length).


A strong correlation was observed between anterior 30% MTH and 30% adductor CSA in men (r = .845, P < .002) and women (r = .952, P < .001) and in both groups combined (r = .922, P < .001). Anterior 30% MTH was also strongly correlated to adductor muscle volume when combined with thigh length (n = 20, r = .949, P < .001). However, there were moderate or nonsignificant correlations between anterior and posterior 50% and 70% MTH and adductor muscle CSA/volume.


The results suggest that MTH in the upper portion of anterior thigh best reflects adductor muscle CSA or muscle volume, while the lower portions of the anterior and posterior sites are least likely to predict adductor muscle size.

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Effects of Volume Training on Strength and Endurance of Back Muscles: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Leonardo Shigaki, Cynthia Gobbi Alves Araújo, Mariane Guizeline Calderon, Thais Karoline Cezar Costa, Andreo Fernando Aguiar, Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa, and Rubens A. da Silva

back pain . Eur Spine J . 2011 ; 20 ( 1 ): 19 – 39 . PubMed ID: 20640863 doi:10.1007/s00586-010-1518-3 10.1007/s00586-010-1518-3 7. Da Silva RA , Larivière C , Arsenault AB , Nadeau S , Plamondon A . Pelvic stabilization and semisitting position increase the specificity of back

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Differences in Maximum Voluntary Excitation Between Isometric and Dynamic Contractions are Age-Dependent

Remco J. Baggen, Jaap H. van Dieën, Sabine M. Verschueren, Evelien Van Roie, and Christophe Delecluse

contractions. Excitation of the gluteus medius during dynamic contractions may also be higher due to the increased recruitment needed for pelvic stabilization in the weight-bearing position (as opposed to the side-lying position more commonly used during isometric contractions). 26 When normalizing to a

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Relationship Among 3 Different Core Stability Tests in Healthy Young Adults: Validity and Gender Differences

Masahiro Kuniki, Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Daiki Yamagiwa, and Nobuhiro Kito

PBU. Participants with a low stability index showed an improved stability index by consciously contracting their abdominal muscles. The efficacy of PBU was indicated in detecting loss of supportive trunk muscle function from these results. 21 The SCST requires lumbar spine and pelvic stabilization

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The Relationship Between Trunk Muscle Thickness and Static Postural Balance in Older Adults

Ece Acar, Tamer Çankaya, and Serkan Öner

, Leveille, Frontera, & Bean, 2009 ). Also trunk muscles participate in pelvic stabilization with hip muscles ( Tateuchi et al., 2013 ). Trunk flexion angle at foot contact and step length has been shown to account for 51% of the variance in whole-body dynamic stability at the time of foot contact of the

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Effects of Hip Abduction Fatigue on Trunk and Shoulder Kinematics During Throwing and Passive Hip Rotational Range of Motion

Gretchen D. Oliver, Jessica K. Washington, Sarah S. Gascon, Hillary A. Plummer, Rafael F. Escamilla, and James R. Andrews

fatigued, resulting in sufficient pelvic stabilization to maintain kinematics in the trunk and upper-extremity. Throwing-side hip internal rotation pROM decreased after the 3 days of the fatigue protocol. The throwing-side hip requires adequate internal rotation to efficiently position the nonthrowing

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Intermittent Treadmill Running Induces Kinematic Compensations to Maintain Soccer Kick Foot Speed Despite No Change in Knee Extensor Strength

Matt Greig

great that the succeeding concentric contraction of the muscle is weakened, then injury might result. The biarticular nature of rectus femoris and its role in knee extension, hip flexion, and pelvic stabilization has been associated with an increased risk of injury. 8 Kicking is commonly identified as

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Effect of Increased Lumbar Lordosis on Lumbar Multifidus and Longissimus Thoracis Activation During Quadruped Exercise in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain: An EMG Study

Jayshree Shah, Tarushi Tanwar, Iram Iram, Mosab Aldabbas, and Zubia Veqar

0021-9290(00)00202-5 11182129 9. Elia DS , Bohannon RW , Cameron D , et al . Dynamic pelvic stabilization during hip flexion: a comparison study . J Orthop Sports Phys Ther . 1996 ; 24 ( 1 ): 30 – 36 . PubMed ID: 8807539 doi:10.2519/jospt.1996.24.1.30 10.2519/jospt.1996.24.1.30 8807539 10