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Mark R. Wilson, Greg Wood and Samuel J. Vine

The current study sought to test the predictions of attentional control theory (ACT) in a sporting environment. Fourteen experienced footballers took penalty kicks under low- and high-threat counterbalanced conditions while wearing a gaze registration system. Fixations to target locations (goalkeeper and goal area) were determined using frame-by-frame analysis. When anxious, footballers made faster first fixations and fixated for significantly longer toward the goalkeeper. This disruption in gaze behavior brought about significant reductions in shooting accuracy, with shots becoming significantly centralized and within the goalkeeper’s reach. These findings support the predictions of ACT, as anxious participants were more likely to focus on the “threatening” goalkeeper, owing to an increased influence of the stimulus-driven attentional control system.

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Martina Navarro, Nelson Miyamoto, John van der Kamp, Edgard Morya, Ronald Ranvaud and Geert J.P. Savelsbergh

We investigated the effects of high pressure on the point of no return or the minimum time required for a kicker to respond to the goalkeeper’s dive in a simulated penalty kick task. The goalkeeper moved to one side with different times available for the participants to direct the ball to the opposite side in low-pressure (acoustically isolated laboratory) and high-pressure situations (with a participative audience). One group of participants showed a significant lengthening of the point of no return under high pressure. With less time available, performance was at chance level. Unexpectedly, in a second group of participants, high pressure caused a qualitative change in which for short times available participants were inclined to aim in the direction of the goalkeeper’s move. The distinct effects of high pressure are discussed within attentional control theory to reflect a decreasing efficiency of the goal-driven attentional system, slowing down performance, and a decreasing effectiveness in inhibiting stimulus-driven behavior.

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Greg Wood, Samuel J. Vine, Johnny Parr and Mark R. Wilson

testing environment and apparatus, each participant attended individually and took 10 practice penalty kicks with no goalkeeper present. Participants were then calibrated to the eye tracker using locations on the goal, took a single block of 10 penalty kicks against the goalkeeper and were told that they

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Andrew G. Wood, Jamie B. Barker, Martin Turner and Peter Thomson

-kick simulation for an elite blind soccer player presents a significant activating event. In elite blind soccer, penalty kicks are awarded to the opposing team after accruing five team fouls. Penalty-kick importance is escalated during the knockout stages of major international tournaments if the game ends in a

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Florian Müller, Jonathan F. Best and Rouwen Cañal-Bruland

actual height in a within-subjects design and invited participants to perform a series of penalty kicks facing goalkeepers of different height (tall vs. short) and reputation (high vs. low) standing in a soccer goal projected on a large life-size screen. If height estimates indeed influence actual

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Nicolas Robin, Lucette Toussaint, Eric Joblet, Emmanuel Roublot and Guillaume R. Coudevylle

that participants improve their performances after an MI intervention in soccer ( Blair et al., 1993 ; Thelwell et al., 2010 ), other studies have reported mixed effects of MI on task performance for penalty kicks ( Hegazy, 2012 ; Sosovec, 2004 ), passing ( Seif-Barghi et al., 2012 ), and tackling

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Nicholas J. Smeeton, Matyas Varga, Joe Causer and A. Mark Williams

), 355 – 371 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2006.02.002 10.1016/j.actpsy.2006.02.002 Lopes , J.E. , Jacobs , D.M. , Travieso , D. , & Araujo , D. ( 2014 ). Predicting the lateral direction of deceptive and non-deceptive penalty kicks in football from the kinematics of the kicker . Human Movement

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Stefan Szymanski

(e.g.,  Hamilton et al., 2014 ). But most statistical analysis of batting performance actually takes the hitting ability of the batter as a given. In fact, the most fruitful application of the theory of human interactions—game theory—has been applied to taking penalty kicks in soccer, one of the few

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Daniel M. Smith and Sarah E. Martiny

superiority of Germans and inferiority of Dutch and English at scoring soccer penalty kicks ( Jordet, 2009 ). In some cases, stereotypes may target more than one group a person belongs to, such as both gender and sexual orientation. For example, the notion of certain sports (or sport in general) as masculine

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Cesar R. Torres

others, throw-ins, corner kicks, and penalty kicks. Even though both sets of highly specialized skills are valued dimensions of sport that can be conceived as part of the game, their eminently different nature and function connote different lusory status. The test inherent in sport provides the