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Eva A. Jaarsma, Damian Haslett, and Brett Smith

People with disabilities are among the most physically inactive people in society. Levels of inactivity among people with disabilities are much higher than people without disabilities ( Carroll et al., 2014 ; Healthy People 2020, 2010 ). For example, in 2016 in the United Kingdom, 51% of people

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Greg Reid, John M. Dunn, and James McClements

The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines to facilitate the inclusion of people with disabilities as subjects in research. Practical suggestions and ethical issues are discussed. The guidelines are separated into components of the research process: (a) locating and selecting subjects, (b) communicating with caregivers and association personnel, (c) obtaining informed consent, (d) preparing subjects for participation in research, and (e) reporting research results. The guidelines ensure treatment of subjects with dignity and improve research quality.

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Youngdeok Kim, Jaehoon Cho, Dana K Fuller, and Minsoo Kang


The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates of physical activity (PA) with personal and environmental factors among people with disabilities in South Korea.


Data from the 2011 National Survey for Physical Activity and Exercise for the Disabled, conducted by Korea Sports Association for the Disabled, was used (n = 1478). The personal characteristics (age, gender, occupation, types of disabilities, family income) and the numbers of public PA-related facilities (welfare center, public indoor gym, and public outdoor facilities) and social sports/exercise clubs for people with disabilities across 16 local areas were also obtained. Hierarchical generalized linear model was used to examine subjectively measured PA in relation to personal and environmental factors.


The likelihood of engaging in PA was significantly lower for women with disabilities. People with hearing and intellectual disabilities were less likely to engage in PA compared with those with physical disabilities. The availability of sports/exercise clubs for people with disabilities was the only environmental factor that was significantly associated with PA.


These findings suggest the need of systematic intervention strategies based upon personal characteristics of people with disabilities. Further public efforts to promote sports/exercise club activities should be encouraged in this population.

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Brenda G. Pitts, Deborah R. Shapiro, Cindy K. Piletic, and Jennifer Zdroik

The social, physical, health, and economic impact and benefits of sport at the individual, local, state, national, and global levels make sport a unique context through which to break down barriers and facilitate inclusion of people with disabilities ( Di Palma et al., 2016 ; Lastuka & Cottingham

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Peter Downs and Trevor Williams

This study examines, in a comparative context, the attitudes of undergraduate students toward the integration of people with disabilities in activity settings. The Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching the Handicapped instrument was used to test preservice physical education undergraduates (N = 371) from universities in England, Denmark, Belgium, and Portugal on attitude variables previously found significant in North American research. Mann-Whitney U analysis revealed significant attitudinal differences between the variables of gender, previous experience with disability, and disability classification (physical or learning disability); between cross-cultural influences of the Belgian sample and the English, Danish, and Portuguese samples; and between the English and the Danish samples.

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David Welch Suggs Jr. and Jason Lee Guthrie

Part of the goal of the International Paralympic Committee is to “touch the heart of all people for a more equitable society” by exposing people to adaptive sports, with the goal of improving public views toward people with disabilities. The authors hypothesized that exposure to parasocial contact with images of athletes with disabilities could lead to a change in attitude during the formation of social identity, disrupting the tendency to view the population of individuals with physical disabilities as “other. ” This case study found that viewing a documentary of a Paralympic sprinter produced in the same style as an Olympic feature appeared to affect the emotional components of attitude formation, especially when compared with respondents who viewed a comparable documentary about an able-bodied athlete. These findings are of interest to proponents of adaptive sports, producers of adaptive-sports media, and marketers who use athletes with disabilities in advertising campaigns.

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Barth B. Riley, James H. Rimmer, Edward Wang, and William J. Schiller

Access to fitness and recreation facilities is an important issue for people with disabilities. Although policy and legislation have helped to remove various environmental barriers, there remain a substantial number of inaccessible features in fitness and recreation facilities. This article presents an approach for improving the accessibility of fitness and recreation environments that enables participation and input from members of the community, as well as persons with expertise in accessibility. Through a collaboration between facilities, persons with disabilities and accessibility consultants, the approach provides a process of incremental change through readily achievable barrier removal and by providing an information and educational resource concerning barrier removal, disability awareness, and economic and information resources. Technology is incorporated to facilitate accessibility assessment, interaction between various stakeholders, and the creation of an accessibility solutions database. Policy implications of this approach are discussed.

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Janine Coates and Philip B. Vickerman

The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games aimed to deliver a legacy to citizens of the United Kingdom, which included inspiring a generation of young people to participate in sport. This study aimed to understand the legacy of the Paralympic Games for children with disabilities. Eight adolescents (11–16 yr) with physical disabilities were interviewed about their perceptions of the Paralympic Games. Thematic analysis found 3 key themes that further our understanding of the Paralympic legacy. These were Paralympians as role models, changing perceptions of disability, and the motivating nature of the Paralympics. Findings demonstrate that the Games were inspirational for children with disabilities, improving their self-perceptions. This is discussed in relation to previous literature, and core recommendations are made.

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Xinling Xu, Orgul D. Ozturk, Margaret A. Turk, and Suzanne W. McDermott

people with disability. To bridge this gap, the aim of the study was to quantify the association between physical activity and medical expenditure among adults with disability (hearing, vision, mobility, or cognitive), compared with the general population, using a US sample. Adults with disability are