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Roger Feltman and Andrew J. Elliot

Recent research has revealed that a person or team wearing red is more likely to win a physical contest than a person or team wearing another color. In the present research, we examined whether red influences perceptions of relative dominance and threat in an imagined same-sex competitive context, and did so attending to the distinction between wearing red oneself and viewing red on an opponent. Results revealed a bidirectional effect: wearing red enhanced perceptions of one’s relative dominance and threat, and viewing an opponent in red enhanced perceptions of the opponent’s relative dominance and threat. These effects were observed across sex, and participants seemed unaware of the influence of red on their responses. Our findings lead to practical suggestions regarding the use of colored attire in sport contexts, and add to an emerging, provocative literature indicating that red has a subtle but important influence on psychological functioning.

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Stephen A. Mitchell

In this article, a study focusing on the perceptions and motivations of middle school students in physical education classes is described. The Physical Education Learning Environment Scale (PELES) was developed to measure student perceptions of learning environment, or class climate, in physical education on dimensions of perceived challenge, perceived threat to sense of self, perceived competitiveness, and perceived control. The PELES was administered, together with the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) to a sample (N = 622) of middle school students. Exploratory factor analyses provided evidence of adequate construct validity for the PELES, following elimination of the perceived control subscale. Multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived threat and perceived challenge predicted intrinsic motivation for both males and females. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for practicing teachers and for future research.

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Rebecca Lewthwaite

Relationships between goal related threat appraisal and competitive trait anxiety were examined in a field study with 102 9- to 15-year-old male soccer players. Questionnaires assessed (a) the frequency and intensity of somatic and cognitive symptoms of competitive trait anxiety, (b) the personal importance of various goals in youth sports, (c) children's perceptions of the extent to which these goals were endangered through sport participation, and (d) self-esteem. Correlational analyses indicated significant but weak relationships between a summary appraisal of threat to important goals and the frequency of somatic and cognitive competitive trait anxiety symptoms, and a stronger relationship between summary threat and competitive trait anxiety intensity. Greater perceived threat to effort/mastery and competitive achievement goals was reported by boys with higher, rather than lower, competitive trait anxiety. Within the sample, however, a cluster analysis revealed considerable individual variation in the degree of threat perceived with respect to each of four identified goals.

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Jon Hammermeister and Damon Burton

This exploratory investigation examined the value of using Lazarus’ (1991; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) stress model, (i.e., primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, and perceived coping) to identify the antecedents of cognitive and somatic state anxiety for endurance athletes. This study also assessed whether endurance athletes with qualitatively similar levels of cognitive and somatic anxiety demonstrate differential antecedent profiles. Participants were 175 triathletes, 70 distance runners, and 70 cyclists who completed stress-related questionnaires 1-2 days prior to competition and the CSAI-2 approximately one hour before competing. Results revealed that all three components of Lazarus’ stress model predicted both cognitive and somatic state anxiety better than did individual model components. Moreover, perceived threat accounted for a greater percentage of variance in cognitive and somatic anxiety than did perceived control or coping resources. Cluster analyses revealed distinct antecedent profiles for high, moderate, low, and “repressed” anxious endurance athletes, suggesting that multiple antecedent profiles may exist for highly anxious athletes in endurance sports.

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Theresa A. Walton and Ted M. Butryn

In this article, we examine the complex relationship between whiteness and men’s U.S. distance running. Through a critical examination of over 700 print and electronic sources dealing with distance running in the U.S. from the 1970s through the present, we present evidence that distance running has been framed as a “White space” that is threatened by both external factors (dominance of male international distance-running competition by athletes from African nations) and internal factors (lack of U.S. White male success in conjunction with the success of U.S. citizens of color, born within and outside of the U.S.). We also examine several forms of backlash against these perceived threats, including the media focus on a succession of next White hopes, the rise of U.S. only prize money in road races, and the marginalization of African-born U.S. runners. Our analysis reveals how the media works to normalize whiteness within the larger narrative of U.S. distance running and suggests the need for future work on whiteness and sport.

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Nicholas Burton and Cheri Bradish

implementation of an international code of conduct for event marketers and stressed the need for additional ethical discourse and investigation in ambush research, implying that ambushers’ conduct is in need of moral regulation. Commercial-Rights Management and Ethical Framing Similarly, the perceived threat

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Rebecca E. Hasson

dangerous places that can be easily taken over for undesirable activities (e.g., gang violence and use/sales of illegal drugs; Cohen et al., 2016 ; Knutsson, 1997 ). These types of perceived threats are barriers to park use and have been cited as reasons some people avoid parks ( Committee on

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Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

Edited by Kim Gammage

sport is more important than athlete safety. The current study investigated the relationship between parental perceived threat of concussion, parental pressure, and attitudes toward sport achievement to parent–child communication concerning seeking care for a suspected concussion. Researchers collected

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Jared A. Russell, Sheri Brock and Mary E. Rudisill

level (e.g., overt discriminatory actions and statements toward individuals and groups; exclusion or marginalization in academic and social settings). Much of the time, these biases and their expression arise as the direct result of a perceived threat. When people feel threatened, they are more likely

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James Dimmock, David Simich, Timothy Budden, Leslie Podlog, Mark Beauchamp and Ben Jackson

. State Psychological Reactance In the absence of a consistently utilized measure of state reactance, our measure incorporated two variables (i.e., anger, perceived threat) that are theoretically aligned with the construct and which have been included as measures in prior research (see e.g.,  Quick