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Self-Determination Moderates the Effects of Perceived Competence on Intrinsic Motivation in an Exercise Setting

David Markland

According to Deci and Ryan’s (1985) self-determination theory, perceptions of self-determination moderate the effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation, with perceived competence only positively influencing intrinsic motivation under conditions of some self-determination. Vallerand’s (1997) hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation suggests that self-determination and competence have only independent effects on intrinsic motivation. The aim of this study was to test these competing models. Women aerobics participants (n = 146) completed measures of self-determination, perceived competence, and intrinsic motivation for exercise. Moderated hierarchical regression revealed a significant interactive effect of self-determination and perceived competence. A plot of the regression of intrinsic motivation on perceived competence under conditions of high and low self-determination, however, showed that the interaction did not take the expected form. Variations in perceived competence positively influenced intrinsic motivation only under conditions of low self-determination. This suggests that it is particularly important to foster perceptions of competence among individuals low in self-determination.

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Player Ability, Coach Feedback, and Female Adolescent Athletes' Perceived Competence and Satisfaction

Justine B. Allen and Bruce L. Howe

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between athlete ability and coach feedback with perceived competence and satisfaction among female adolescent athletes. Athletes (N = 123) reported their perceptions of coaches' use of feedback, their own field hockey competence, and satisfaction with the coach and team involvement. In addition, coaches' ratings of athletes' ability were obtained. Analyses revealed that both ability and coach feedback were significantly related to perceived competence and satisfaction. Specifically, a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that higher ability, more frequent praise and information, and less frequent encouragement and corrective information were related to higher perceived competence. Further, a canonical correlation analysis revealed that higher ability, frequent praise and information after a good performance, and frequent encouragement and corrective information after an error were associated with greater satisfaction with the coach and team involvement. The results are discussed in relation to Harter's (1978) competence motivation theory).

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Relationships Between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self-Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

Liz Haslem, Carol Wilkinson, Kevin A. Prusak, William F. Christensen, and Todd Pennington

The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school students (N = 280) at the end of a CPE course completed the following: Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire–2, Godin Leisure–Time Exercise Questionnaire, Perceived Competence Scale, and a HRFK Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling analysis was used to explore the relationships between the variables of HRFK, perceived competence, motivation, and physical activity. The analysis resulted in a modified model that showed a relationship between perceived competence and physical activity, mediated by introjected and identified regulation. A relationship also existed between HRFK and external regulation indicating students felt controlled. Suggested value-promoting activities could help students value concepts being taught.

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Gross Motor Skills and School Day Physical Activity: Mediating Effect of Perceived Competence

You Fu and Ryan D. Burns

; Goodway & Rudisill, 1997 ; Harter, 1978 ). Three motivational constructs explored in the literature include perceived competence, enjoyment, and self-efficacy. According to the competence motivation theory ( Harter, 1978 ), perceived competence and enjoyment are significant contributors to physical

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Exploring the Effects of a Context Personalization Approach in Physical Education on Students’ Interests and Perceived Competence

Cédric Roure and Denis Pasco

(e.g.,  Ding et al., 2013 ), and their perceived competence ( Roure & Lentillon-Kaestner, 2022 ). In their literature review of this field of research, Chen and Wang ( 2017 ) explained that the centration on SI is related to the claim that SI can be controlled and manipulated by PE teachers to help

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Associations Between Perceived Social Support, Perceived Competence, and Physical Activity in Hong Kong Children With Disabilities During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Ming Hui Li, Jane Jie Yu, Stephen Heung Sang Wong, Raymond Kim Wai Sum, and Cindy Hui Ping Sit

in their perception of their physical competence toward PA ( Xiang et al., 2004 ), as some children may perceive themselves as possessing proficient skills in performing PA, while others may think they lack such skills ( Shen et al., 2018 ). Perceived competence in PA (at within the personal level

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Perceived Competence of Schoolchildren in Physical Education

Beverley McKiddie and Ian W. Maynard

The primary aim of this study was to examine developmental differences in children's evaluation of their physical competence within the physical education lesson. Participants (N = 160) from two groups in secondary school (Year 7 and Year 10) completed two questionnaires that measured their levels of perceived competence and the criteria used to assess competence. The actual level of a participant’s physical competence was ascertained through teacher evaluation. Univariate and multivariate analyses of data disclosed three main findings. First, children’s accuracy in evaluating their own competence increases with age. Second, the sources of information children use to judge their ability is also age-dependent. Gender differences also emerged, indicating that overall males exhibited a greater preference for game outcome/ease of learning new skills as criteria to judge their competence. Third, the information sources children use in competency judgments was directly linked to the accuracy of these judgments.

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Motivational Climate in Physical Education, Achievement Motivation, and Physical Activity: A Latent Interaction Model

Stéphanie Girard, Jérôme St-Amand, and Roch Chouinard

provides a relevant framework for more in-depth analysis of students’ motivational processes in PE. Specifically, the present paper seeks to better understand the links between motivational climate in PE classes, students’ perceived competence, and achievement goals in PE and their LTPA. Theoretical

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Perceived Competence in Soccer Skills among Young Soccer Players

Deborah L. Feltz and Eugene W. Brown

Harter's (1979) perceived competence subscale was modified to specifically apply to soccer in order to compare young soccer players' general self-esteem, perceived physical competence, and perceived soccer competence scores in predicting players' actual soccer ability. Young soccer players (N = 217), 8 to 13 years of age, were tested on five soccer skill tests. Players also completed Harter's (1979) Perceived Competence Scale for Children and our perceived soccer competence subscale. We hypothesized that perceived soccer competence would have high internal consistency and would be a better predictor of soccer ability than either perceived physical competence or general self-esteem. Results indicated that the perceived soccer competence subscale had the highest internal consistency reliability coefficient, and that it was also slightly more predictive of soccer ability than perceived physical competence as indicated by multivariate multiple regression analysis and canonical correlation analysis. Future studies investigating perceived competence as a motivational variable in specific youth sports may find the sport-specific perceived competence measure to provide additional information to Harter's questionnaire.

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Relationships Between Product- and Process-Oriented Measures of Motor Competence and Perceived Competence

Larissa True, Ali Brian, Jackie Goodway, and David Stodden

Motor competence is associated with psychological and physical health outcomes. A reciprocal relationship between motor competence and perceptions of physical competence exists, but the developmental trajectory of the motor competence/perceived competence relationship is not well understood. Standardized assessments take a product- or process-oriented approach, but research concerning the motor competence/perceived competence relationship is limited to using process-oriented assessments. It is unknown whether boys and girls use product and process information differentially in the development of perceived competence. Children (N = 411) were aggregated into age groups. Perceived competence and product and process aspects of motor competence were assessed. Older children were more skillful than younger children but reported lower perceived competence. The motor competence/perceived competence association increased for both motor competence measures across age groups. Girls demonstrated stronger associations between process measures of motor competence and perceived competence, while boys indicated stronger associations between product measures of motor competence and perceived competence. When both motor competence measures were used to predict perceived competence, more variance in perceived competence was explained, compared with using independent predictors. The strength of the prediction increased across age groups, indicating that motor competence is a stronger predictor of perceived competence in older children.