The primary purpose of this research was to examine the influence of different normative (descriptive, injunctive) messages on individual self-reported effort in sport. Adult recreational volleyball athletes (n = 58) reported their self-perceived effort, were randomly assigned through their team designation to one of three conditions (descriptive norm, injunctive norm, control) and then received multiple e-mail messages specific to their condition motivating them to work hard. Participants reported their self-perceived effort a second time after receipt of these messages. The results from a one-way ANCOVA, controlling for initial perceived effort, revealed that those in the normative conditions reported greater perceived effort than those in the control condition. Preliminary evidence is provided suggesting that individual self-reported effort may be significantly impacted by the perception of what others are doing and what others approve of within that environment (i.e., normative information).
Alyson J. Crozier and Kevin S. Spink
Paul Ford, Richard Bailey, Damian Coleman, Daniel Stretch, Edward Winter, Kate Woolf-May and Ian Swaine
There are no previous reports of energy expenditure and perceived effort during brisk-walking and running at speeds self-selected by young children. Fifty four participants (age 8–11 years old) performed 1500 m of brisk-walking and running in a marked school playground, and were given simple instructions to either ‘walk quickly’ or to ‘jog’. During the running the children achieved higher mean speeds and a greater total energy expenditure (p < .001). However, there was no difference in the perceived effort between the two activities (p > .05). These findings suggest that under certain conditions children find it just as easy to run as they do to walk briskly, even though the speed and energy expenditure is significantly higher.
Mary Lou Veal and Nick Compagnone
Walter J. Rejeski and Paul M. Ribisl
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of anticipated task duration on ratings of perceived exertion during treadmill running. Male subjects.(N = 15) completed two separate runs on a motor-driven treadmill at 85% V02 max. During one trial, subjects ran for a period of 20 minutes, while for a second trial, subjects were led to believe that they would be running for 30 minutes. In each case, the trials were terminated at the 20-minute mark. Ratings of perceived exertion, heart rates, respiratory rates, and ventilatory minute volumes were collected across each trial. Results supported the supposition that the anticipation of continued performance mediated ratings of effort expenditure. This effect was obtained only during moderate work levels and was in contrast to research examining mental fatigue.
Tim J. Gabbett, Ben Walker and Shane Walker
To investigate the influence of prior knowledge of exercise duration on the pacing strategies employed during gamebased activities.
Twelve semiprofessional team-sport athletes (mean ± SD age 22.8 ± 2.1 y) participated in this study. Players performed 3 small-sided games in random order. In one condition (Control), players were informed that they would play the small-sided game for 12 min and then completed the 12-min game. In a 2nd condition (Deception), players were told that they would play the small-sided game for 6 minutes, but after completing the 6-min game, they were asked to complete another 6 min. In a 3rd condition (Unknown), players were not told how long they would be required to play the small-sided game, but the activity was terminated after 12 min. Movement was recorded using a GPS unit sampling at 10 Hz. Post hoc inspection of video footage was undertaken to count the number of possessions and the number and quality of disposals.
Higher initial intensities were observed in the Deception (130.6 ± 3.3 m/min) and Unknown (129.3 ± 2.4 m/min) conditions than the Control condition (123.3 ± 3.4 m/min). Greater amounts of high-speed running occurred during the initial phases of the Deception condition, and more low-speed activity occurred during the Unknown condition. A moderately greater number of total skill involvements occurred in the Unknown condition than the Control condition.
These findings suggest that during game-based activities, players alter their pacing strategy based on the anticipated endpoint of the exercise bout.
Deborah Kendzierski, R. Michael Furr Jr. and Jennifer Schiavoni
Three studies investigated the correlates of physical activity self-definitions among undergraduate exercisers and athletes, and examined the perceived criteria for defining oneself as a weightlifter, basketball player, and exerciser. Perceptions about behavior, motivation-related variables, and social world variables showed consistent relationships with self-definition; correlations between self-definition and enjoyment varied according to activity. Although affective criteria were mentioned by a sizable number of those with and without physical activity self-definitions, participants cited far more behavioral than affective criteria. Other frequently mentioned criteria were also identified. Implications for self-inference are discussed and a preliminary model of physical activity self-definition is presented.
Pedro Lopez, Mikel Izquierdo, Regis Radaelli, Graciele Sbruzzi, Rafael Grazioli, Ronei Silveira Pinto and Eduardo Lusa Cadore
of the training period and the RT intensity prescription method (percentage of one-repetition maximum [%1-RM] vs. rate of perceived effort [RPE]) in the main outcomes. Methods Study Selection Procedure The study was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews
Luis Peñailillo, Karen Mackay and Chris R. Abbiss
increases with alterations in physiological stress such as an increase in oxygen consumption, an increase in metabolic acidosis, or reductions in carbohydrate stores. 5 , 22 , 23 This is not to state that perceived effort only arises from corollary discharges of central motor command and perceived exertion
Susan J. Leach, Joyce R. Maring and Ellen Costello
pretest to posttest suggesting participants demonstrated improved efficiency with this task since they walked farther and faster at the same perceived effort. DATSAT training lasted approximately 6 min in total, resulted in RPEs of 9–10 per session, and incorporated 96 steps. Using the stepping
Luana T. Rossato, Camila T.M. Fernandes, Públio F. Vieira, Flávia M.S. de Branco, Paula C. Nahas, Guilherme M. Puga and Erick P. de Oliveira
of the rest duration. Immediately after the mouth rinse, subjects commenced their run to exhaustion test on the treadmill at velocity equivalent to 100% of individual’s VO 2 max. Every 30 seconds during the test, individuals were questioned about their ratings of perceived effort (using the Borg