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Ron E. McBride and Ping Xiang

Three hundred and sixty-one students participating in university physical activity classes completed questionnaires assessing perceived health and self-regulated learning. In addition, 20 students (11 men; 9 women) were interviewed about their reasons for enrolling, participation and goals in the class. Results indicated the students endorsed intrinsic regulation, were autonomous, and the males scored significantly higher on intrinsic regulation and perceived health. Of four regulators, intrinsic regulation predicted student perceived health. The social nature of regulation also cannot be overlooked in providing practicable opportunities and relationships that influence learning in university physical activity classes.

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Rochelle Eime, Jack Harvey, Melanie Charity, Sam Elliott, Murray Drummond, Aurelie Pankowiak, and Hans Westerbeek

and elite sport participants or has focused on physical activity in general, but not specifically on participation in community sport. In this paper, we seek to determine the association between various demographic and sport participation characteristics of older adults and their perceived health and

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Patrick J. O’Connor, Amanda L. Caravalho, Eric C. Freese, and Kirk J. Cureton

Compounds found in the skins of grapes, including catechins, quercetin, and resveratrol, have been added to the diet of rodents and improved run time to exhaustion, fitness, and skeletal-muscle mitochondrial function. It is unknown if such effects occur in humans. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether 6 wk of daily grape consumption influenced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, and arm-function responses to a mild eccentric-exercise-induced arm-muscle injury. Forty recreationally active young adults were randomly assigned to consume a grape or placebo drink for 45 consecutive days. Before and after 42 d of supplementation, assessments were made of treadmill-running VO2max, work capacity (treadmill performance time), mood (Profile of Mood States), and perceived health status (SF-36 Health Survey). The day after posttreatment treadmill tests were completed, 18 high-intensity eccentric actions of the nondominant elbow flexors were performed. Arm-muscle inflammation, pain, and function (isometric strength and range of motion) were measured before and on 2 consecutive days after the eccentric exercise. Mixed-model ANOVA showed no significant effect of grape consumption on any of the outcomes. Six weeks of supplemental grape consumption by recreationally active young adults has no effect on VO2max, work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, or physical-function responses to a mild injury induced by eccentric exercise.

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Joanna Edel McHugh and Brian A. Lawlor

Background:

Perceived health status does not always reflect actual health status. We investigated the association between objective and self-rated measures of health status and hours of exercise per week in older adults.

Method:

As part of the TRIL clinic assessment, we gathered information from 473 community dwelling adults over the age of 65, regarding hours spent per week exercising, depression, personality, perceived health status, and objective health status (in the form of a comorbidity count). Regression analyses were performed on these data to investigate whether perceived health status, objective health status, personality and mood are associated with hours of exercise per week.

Results:

Perceived and objective health status were significantly but weakly correlated. Both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression, were independently associated with hours of exercise per week.

Conclusions:

We conclude that exercise uptake in older adults is contingent on both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression. Perceived health status has a stronger association with exercise uptake in older adults with lower depression levels. The current findings have implications for designing exercise interventions for older adults.

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Eric C. Freese, Rachelle M. Acitelli, Nicholas H. Gist, Kirk J. Cureton, Ellen M. Evans, and Patrick J. O’Connor

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether 6 weeks of sprint interval training (SIT) is associated with changes in mood and perceived health in women at risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). Physically inactive women (30–65 years) were randomized to 6 weeks of nutrition meetings and SIT (n = 23; 3 bouts/week of 4–8 30-s cycle sprints with 4-min recovery) or a nonexercise control condition (CON; n = 24). Before and after the 6-week intervention, perceived health status and mood were assessed. Clinically relevant increases in role-physical scores (ES = 0.64) and vitality (ES = 0.52) were found after 6 weeks of SIT compared with a nonexercise control group. For middle-aged women at risk for MetS, it is concluded that high-intensity, low-volume SIT (1) increases feelings of vitality and perceptions of having fewer physical limitations and (2) does not induce mood disturbances as occurs with high-volume, high-intensity training.

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Shilpa Dogra

Poor self-perceived health (SPH) is associated with lower levels of physical activity (PA) and the presence of chronic disease in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether SPH is associated with PA levels in older adults with existing chronic disease and whether this differs by disease. Using logistic regressions on data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 33,168) it was found that adjusted logistic regressions revealed that odds of physical inactivity were similar in those with good SPH who reported having respiratory, musculoskeletal, or other chronic disease compared with those with good SPH without these diseases. Those with good SPH who reported having cardiometabolic disease were at significantly greater risk of physical inactivity than those with good SPH without cardiometabolic disease. It is apparent from the current analysis that SPH plays an important role in PA levels of older adults with chronic disease and should be targeted in future interventions.

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Kazuhiro Harada, Ai Shibata, Euna Lee, Koichiro Oka, and Yoshio Nakamura

Background:

Although several studies have examined associations of perceived benefits and barriers with physical activity, no studies have focused on them corresponding to strength-training recommendations for older adults. This study examined the associations among the perceived health benefits of strength training, perceived barriers to strength straining, and stages of change for strength-training behavior in older Japanese adults.

Methods:

This cross-sectional survey included a random sample of 1144 adults (60–74 years) from the city of Tokorozawa. Stage of change was the independent variable, with perceived health benefits (eg, strength training can reduce body pain) and perceived barriers (eg, facilities are needed for strength training) as dependent variables. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance and Bonferroni’s multiple comparison.

Results:

After adjusting for demographic variables, the perceived health-benefit score for precontemplation was significantly lower than for the other four stages. The perceived barrier scores in the precontemplation and contemplation stages were significantly higher than those in the preparation and maintenance stages.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that information about the health benefits for older adults and about the recommended type of strength training might be useful for the development of strategies to promote strength training among older adults.

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Hsin-Yen Yen and Hsuan Hsu

). The perceived health status is an essential health predictor in older populations, as it predicts mortality, hospitalization, and healthcare costs ( Harada et al., 2018 ). Older adults who perceive themselves as being healthy participate in society and encourage healthy behaviors. A previous study

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Yong Yang, Sheng Li, Kai Zhang, Xiaoling Xiang, Zhigang Li, SangNam Ahn, and James Murphy

as the young and middle-aged group. Second, we examined how daily smartphone use is associated with daily travel, PA, and self-perceived health. For both aims, we focused on older adults (aged ≥65 years) and used young and middle-aged adults for comparison purposes. We used the 2017 National

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Akitomo Yasunaga, Fumiharu Togo, Eiji Watanabe, Hyuntae Park, Roy J. Shephard, and Yukitoshi Aoyagi

We hypothesized that the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) would be poorer in physically inactive older adults. This was tested in a sample of 73 male and 108 female free-living healthy Japanese participants, age 65–85 years. We measured accelerometer step counts and their metabolic equivalents (METs) throughout each 24-hr period for 1 year. At the end of the year, HRQOL was assessed. Physical activity was grouped into quartiles. HRQOL was poorer in the lowest quartiles of participants with respect to both step count and duration of activity >3 METs; however, our sample showed no better HRQOL in those participants exceeding minimum standards of daily physical activity, corresponding to counts of around 5,500 and 4,500 steps/day and durations of around 13 and 14 min/day in men and women, respectively. Causation cannot be demonstrated from this cross-sectional study, but nevertheless we suggest that elderly individuals should be encouraged to meet such standards of habitual physical activity.